EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines

References

[1]Bruix, J., Sherman, M., Llovet, J.M., Beaugrand, M., Lencioni, R., Burroughs, A.K. et al. EASL Panel of Experts on HCC. Clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions of the Barcelona-2000 EASL conference. European Association for the Study of the Liver. J Hepatol. 2001; 35: 421430
PubMed | Scopus (1924)

[2]National Cancer Institute. PDQ levels of evidence for adult and pediatric cancer treatment studies. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified 26/August/2010. <http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/levels-evidence-adult-treatment/healthprofessional/>; 2011 [accessed 01.03.11].
http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/levels-evidence-adult-treatment/healthprofessional/

[3]Parkin, D.M., Bray, F., Ferlay, J., and Pisani, P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 74108
CrossRef | PubMed

[4]IARC. <http://www-dep.iarc.fr/>; 2011 [accessed 01.11.11].
http://www-dep.iarc.fr/

[5]El-Serag, H.B. and Mason, A.C. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 745750
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (2068)

[6]Tanaka, H., Imai, Y., Hiramatsu, N., Ito, Y., Imanaka, K., Oshita, M. et al. Declining incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Osaka, Japan from 1990 to 2003. Ann Intern Med. 2008; 148: 820826
CrossRef | PubMed

[7]Bosetti, C., Boffetta, P., Lucchini, F., Negri, E., and La Vecchia, C. Trends in mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma in Europe, 19802004. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 137145
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (89)

[8]Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Ward, E., Hao, Y., Xu, J., Murray, T. et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 7196
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (6616)

[9]Chang, M.H., You, S.L., Chen, C.J., Liu, C.J., Lee, C.M., Lin, S.M. et al. Taiwan Hepatoma Study Group. Decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B vaccinees: a 20-year follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009; 101: 13481355
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (138)

[10]Sangiovanni, A., Prati, G.M., Fasani, P., Ronchi, G., Romeo, R., Manini, M. et al. The natural history of compensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus: a 17-year cohort study of 214 patients. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 13031310
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (165)

[11]Ioannou, G., Splan, M., Weiss, N., McDonald, G., Beretta, L., and Lee, S. Incidence and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 5: 938945
PubMed | Scopus (45)

[12]Lok, A.S., Seeff, L.B., Morgan, T.R., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Sterling, R.K., Curto, T.M. et al. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and associated risk factors in hepatitis C-related advanced liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 138148
PubMed | Scopus (142)

[13]Ripoll, C., Groszmann, R.J., Garcia-Tsao, G., Bosch, J., Grace, N., Burroughs, A. et al. Hepatic venous pressure gradient predicts development of hepatocellular carcinoma independently of severity of cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 923928
PubMed | Scopus (59)

[14]Masuzaki, R., Tateishi, R., Yoshida, H., Goto, E., Sato, T., and Ohki, T. Prospective risk assessment for hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis C by transient elastography. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 19541961
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (78)

[15]Jung, K.S., Kim, S.U., Ahn, S.H., Park, Y.N., Kim do, Y., Park, J.Y. et al. Risk assessment of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma development using liver stiffness measurement (FibroScan). Hepatology. 2011; 53: 885894
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (56)

[16]Lok, A.S. Prevention of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S303S309
PubMed | Scopus (76)

[17]Yang, H.I., Lu, S.N., Liaw, Y.F., You, S.L., Sun, C.A., Wang, L.Y. et al. Taiwan CommunityBased Cancer Screening Project Group. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 168174
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (611)

[18]Chen, C.J., Yang, H.I., Su, J., Jen, C.L., You, S.L., Lu, S.N. et al. REVEAL-HBV Study Group. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA. 2006; 295: 6573
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1149)

[19]Yu, M.W., Yeh, S.H., Chen, P.J., Liaw, Y.F., Lin, C.L., Liu, C.J. et al. Hepatitis B virus genotype and DNA level and hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 265272
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (298)

[20]Iloeje, U.H., Yang, H.I., Su, J., Jen, C.L., You, S.L., and Chen, C.J. Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/CancerIn HBV (the REVEALHBV) Study Group. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 678686
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (705)

[21]Raimondi, S., Bruno, S., Mondelli, M.U., and Maisonneuve, P. Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma development: a meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 11421154
PubMed | Scopus (41)

[22]Hsu, I.C., Metcalf, R.A., Sun, T., Welsh, J.A., Wang, N.J., and Harris, C.C. Mutational hotspot in the p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Nature. 1991; 350: 427428
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (710)

[23]Deugnier, Y.M., Guyader, D., Crantock, L., Lopez, J.M., Turlin, B., Yaouanq, J. et al. Primary liver cancer in genetic hemochromatosis: a clinical, pathological, and pathogenetic study of 54 cases. Gastroenterology. 1993; 104: 228234
PubMed

[24]Perlmutter, D.H. Pathogenesis of chronic liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2006; 60: 233238
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (37)

[25]Polio, J., Enriquez, R.E., Chow, A., Wood, W.M., and Atterbury, C.E. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Wilsons disease. Case report and review of the literature. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989; 11: 220224
CrossRef | PubMed

[26]El-Serag, H.B., Richardson, P.A., and Everhart, J.E. The role of diabetes in hepatocellular carcinoma: a casecontrol study among United States Veterans. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 24622467
CrossRef | PubMed

[27]Marrero, J., Fontana, R., Fu, S., Conjeevaram, H., Su, G., and Lok, A. Alcohol, tobacco and obesity are synergistic risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2005; 42: 218224
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (153)

[28]Trichopoulos, D., Bamia, C., Lagiou, P., Fedirko, V., Trepo, E., Jenab, M. et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors and disease burden in a European cohort: a nested casecontrol study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103: 16861695
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (25)

[29]Marcellin, P., Pequignot, F., Delarocque-Astagneau, E., Zarski, J.P., Ganne, N., Hillon, P. et al. Mortality related to chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C in France: evidence for the role of HIV coinfection and alcohol consumption. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 200207
PubMed | Scopus (68)

[30]Miki, Y., Swensen, J., Shattuck-Eidens, D., Futreal, P.A., Harshman, K., Tavtigian, S. et al. A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science. 1994; 266: 6671
CrossRef | PubMed

[31]Marra, G. and Boland, C.R. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: the syndrome, the genes, and historical perspectives. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87: 11141125
CrossRef | PubMed

[32]Tanabe, K.K., Lemoine, A., Finkelstein, D.M., Kawasaki, H., Fujii, T., Chung, R.T. et al. Epidermal growth factor gene functional polymorphism and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. JAMA. 2008; 299: 5360
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (85)

[33]Clifford, R.J., Zhang, J., Meerzaman, D.M., Lyu, M.S., Hu, Y., Cultraro, C.M. et al. Genetic variations at loci involved in the immune response are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 20342043
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (29)

[34]World Health Organization. Hepatitis B vaccines. Weekly epidemiological record of the World Health Organization 2009;84;405420.

[35]European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 227242
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (975)

[36]European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2011; 55: 245264
PubMed | Scopus (351)

[37]Niederau, C., Heintges, T., Lange, S., Goldmann, G., Niederau, C.M., Mohr, L. et al. Long-term follow-up of HBeAg-positive patients treated with interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 14221427
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (656)

[38]Yuen, M.F., Sablon, E., Hui, C.K., Yuan, H.J., Decraemer, H., and Lai, C.L. Factors associated with hepatitis B virus DNA breakthrough in patients receiving prolonged lamivudine therapy. Hepatology. 2001; 34: 785791
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (287)

[39]Liaw, Y.F., Sung, J.J., Chow, W.C., Farrell, G., Lee, C.Z., Yuen, H. et al. Cirrhosis Asian Lamivudine Multicentre Study Group. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 15211531
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1060)

[40]Singal, A.G., Volk, M.L., Jensen, D., Di Bisceglie, A.M., and Schoenfeld, P.S. A sustained viral response is associated with reduced liver-related morbidity and mortality in patients with hepatitis C virus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 8: 280288
PubMed | Scopus (60)

[41]Nishiguchi, S., Kuroki, T., Nakatani, S., Morimoto, H., Takeda, T., Nakajima, S. et al. Randomised trial of effects of interferon-alpha on incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic active hepatitis C with cirrhosis. Lancet. 1995; 346: 10511055
Abstract | PubMed | Scopus (746)

[42]Valla, D.C., Chevallier, M., Marcellin, P., Payen, J.L., Trepo, C., Fonck, M. et al. Treatment of hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis: a randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b versus no treatment. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 18701875
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (176)

[43]Lok, A.S., Everhart, J.E., Wright, E.C., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Kim, H.Y., Sterling, R.K. et al. HALT-C Trial Group. Maintenance peginterferon therapy and other factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 840849
PubMed | Scopus (53)

[44]Di Bisceglie, A.M., Stoddard, A.M., Dienstag, J.L., Shiffman, M.L., Seeff, L.B., Bonkovsky, H.L. et al. HALT-C Trial Group. Excess mortality in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C treated with long-term peginterferon. Hepatology. 2011; 53: 11001108
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (28)

[45]Bruix, J., Poynard, T., Colombo, M., Schiff, E., Burak, K., Heathcote, E.J. et al. EPIC3 Study Group. Maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b does not prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 19901999
PubMed | Scopus (31)

[46]Prorok, P.C. Epidemiologic approach for cancer screening. Problems in design and analysis of trials. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1992; 14: 117128
CrossRef | PubMed

[47]El-Serag, H.B. Hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 11181127
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (221)

[48]Laupacis, A., Feeny, D., Detsky, A.S., and Tugwell, P.X. How attractive does a new technology have to be to warrant adoption and utilization? Tentative guidelines for using clinical and economic evaluations. CMAJ. 1992; 146: 473481
PubMed

[49]Sarasin, F.P., Giostra, E., and Hadengue, A. Costeffectiveness of screening for detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma in western patients with ChildPugh class A cirrhosis. Am J Med. 1996; 101: 422434
PubMed | Scopus (155)

[50]Fattovich, G., Stroffolini, T., Zagni, I., and Donato, F. Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: incidence and risk factors. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S35S50
PubMed | Scopus (663)

[51]Yoshida, H., Shiratori, Y., Moriyama, M., Arakawa, Y., Ide, T., Sata, M. et al. Interferon therapy reduces the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: national surveillance program of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C in Japan. IHIT Study Group. Inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis by interferon therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131: 174181
CrossRef | PubMed

[52]Sangiovanni, A., Del Ninno, E., Fasani, P., De Fazio, C., Ronchi, G., Romeo, R. et al. Increased survival of cirrhotic patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma detected during surveillance. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 10051014
PubMed | Scopus (292)

[53]Ganne-Carri, N., Chastang, C., Chapel, F., Munz, C., Pateron, D., Sibony, M. et al. Predictive score for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and additional value of liver large cell dysplasia in Western patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1996; 23: 11121118
CrossRef | PubMed

[54]Velzquez, R.F., Rodrguez, M., Navascus, C.A., Linares, A., Prez, R., Sotorros, N.G. et al. Prospective analysis of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 520527
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (211)

[55]Trevisani, F., Santi, V., Gramenzi, A., Di Nolfo, M.A., Poggio, P.D., and Benvegn, L. For the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA.) group. Surveillance for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: is it effective in intermediate/advanced cirrhosis?. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 24482457
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (26)

[56]Bruix, J. and Sherman, M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: an update. Hepatology. 2011; 53: 10201022
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (617)

[57]Di Bisceglie, A.M. Issues in screening and surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S104S107
PubMed | Scopus (65)

[58]Fattovich, G., Bortolotti, F., and Donato, F. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: special emphasis on disease progression and prognostic factors. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 335352
PubMed | Scopus (259)

[59]Snchez-Tapias, J.M., Costa, J., Mas, A., Bruguera, M., and Rods, J. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotype on the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in western patients. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 18481856
PubMed | Scopus (229)

[60]Martnez, S.M., Crespo, G., Navasa, M., and Forns, X. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Hepatology. 2011; 53: 325335
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (75)

[61]Bosch, F.X., Ribes, J., Daz, M., and Clries, R. Primary liver cancer: worldwide incidence and trends. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S5S16
PubMed | Scopus (955)

[62]Yasui, K., Hashimoto, E., Komorizono, Y., Koike, K., Arii, S., and Imai, Y. Characteristics of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis who develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 9: 428433
PubMed | Scopus (39)

[63]Crax, A. and Camm, C. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Liver Dis. 2005; 9: 329346
PubMed | Scopus (34)

[64]Bruno, S., Stroffolini, T., Colombo, M., Bollani, S., Benvegn, L., Mazzella, G. et al. Italian Association of the Study of the Liver Disease (AISF). Sustained virological response to interferon-alpha is associated with improved outcome in HCV-related cirrhosis: a retrospective study. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 579587
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (260)

[65]Sung, J.J., Tsoi, K.K., Wong, V.W., Li, K.C., and Chan, H.L. Meta-analysis: treatment of hepatitis B infection reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 28: 10671077
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (99)

[66]Lampertico, P., Vigan, M., Manenti, E., Iavarone, M., Sablon, E., and Colombo, M. Low resistance to adefovir combined with lamivudine: a 3-year study of 145 lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B patients. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133: 14451451
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (218)

[67]Bolondi, L. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2003; 39: 10761084
PubMed | Scopus (79)

[68]Kim, C.K., Lim, J.H., and Lee, W.J. Detection of hepatocellular carcinomas and dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic liver: accuracy of ultrasonography in transplant patients. J Ultrasound Med. 2001; 20: 99104
PubMed

[69]Singal, A., Volk, M.L., Waljee, A., Salgia, R., Higgins, P., Rogers, M.A. et al. Meta-analysis: surveillance with ultrasound for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 30: 3747
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (70)

[70]Sato, T., Tateishi, R., Yoshida, H., Ohki, T., Masuzaki, R., Imamura, J. et al. Ultrasound surveillance for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatol Int. 2009; 3: 544550
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[71]Lencioni, R., Piscaglia, F., and Bolondi, L. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 848857
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (43)

[72]Marrero, J.A., Su, G.L., Wei, W., Emick, D., Conjeevaram, H.S., Fontana, R.J. et al. Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin can differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma from nonmalignant chronic liver disease in American patients. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 11141121
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (161)

[73]Tsukuma, H., Hiyama, T., Tanaka, S., Nakao, M., Yabuuchi, T., Kitamura, T. et al. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic liver disease. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 17971801
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (725)

[74]Chen, J.G., Parkin, D.M., Chen, Q.G., Lu, J.H., Shen, Q.J., Zhang, B.C. et al. Screening for liver cancer: results of a randomised controlled trial in Qidong, China. J Med Screen. 2003; 10: 204209
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (71)

[75]McMahon, B.J., Bulkow, L., Harpster, A., Snowball, M., Lanier, A., Sacco, F. et al. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaska natives infected with chronic hepatitis B: a 16-year population-based study. Hepatology. 2000; 32: 842846
CrossRef | PubMed

[76]Di Bisceglie, A.M., Sterling, R.K., Chung, R.T., Everhart, J.E., Dienstag, J.L., Bonkovsky, H.L. et al. HALT-C Trial Group. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with advanced hepatitis C: results from the HALT-C Trial. J Hepatol. 2005; 43: 434441
PubMed | Scopus (75)

[77]Yamashita, T., Forgues, M., Wang, W., Kim, J.W., Ye, Q., Jia, H. et al. EpCAM and alpha-fetoprotein expression defines novel prognostic subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008; 68: 14511461
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (185)

[78]Villanueva, A., Minguez, B., Forner, A., Reig, M., and Llovet, J.M. Hepatocellular carcinoma: novel molecular approaches for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Annu Rev Med. 2010; 61: 317328
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (70)

[79]Hoshida, Y., Nijman, S.M., Kobayashi, M., Chan, J.A., Brunet, J.P., Chiang, D.Y. et al. Integrative transcriptome analysis reveals common molecular subclasses of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2009; 69: 73857392
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (119)

[80]Trevisani, F., DIntino, P.E., Morselli-Labate, A.M., Mazzella, G., Accogli, E., Caraceni, P. et al. Serum alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease: influence of HbsAg and anti-HCV status. J Hepatol. 2001; 34: 570575
PubMed | Scopus (239)

[81]Pateron, D., Ganne, N., Trinchet, J.C., Aurousseau, M.H., Mal, F., Meicler, C. et al. Prospective study of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in Caucasian patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 1994; 20: 6571
PubMed

[82]Koike, Y., Shiratori, Y., Sato, S., Obi, S., Teratani, T., Imamura, M. et al. Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin as a useful predisposing factor for the development of portal venous invasion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective analysis of 227 patients. Cancer. 2001; 91: 561569
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (158)

[83]Sterling, R.K., Jeffers, L., Gordon, F., Sherman, M., Venook, A.P., Reddy, K.R. et al. Clinical utility of AFP-L3% measurement in North American patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 21962205
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (44)

[84]Wang, M., Long, R.E., Comunale, M.A., Junaidi, O., Marrero, J., Di Bisceglie, A.M. et al. Novel fucosylated biomarkers for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 19141921
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[85]Zhang, B. and Yang, B. Combined alpha fetoprotein testing and ultrasonography as a screening test for primary liver cancer. J Med Screen. 1999; 6: 108110
CrossRef | PubMed

[86]Zhang, B.H., Yang, B.H., and Tang, Z.Y. Randomized controlled trial of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004; 130: 417422
PubMed

[87]Barbara, L., Benzi, G., Gaiani, S., Fusconi, F., Zironi, G., Siringo, S. et al. Natural history of small untreated hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors of tumor growth rate and patient survival. Hepatology. 1992; 16: 132137
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (236)

[88]Ebara, M., Ohto, M., Shinagawa, T., Sugiura, N., Kimura, K., Matsutani, S. et al. Natural history of minute hepatocellular carcinoma smaller than three centimetres complicating cirrhosis. A study in 22 patients. Gastroenterology. 1986; 90: 289298
PubMed

[89]Sheu, J.C., Sung, J.L., Chen, D.S., Yang, P.M., Lai, M.Y., Lee, C.S. et al. Growth rate of asymptomatic hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical implications. Gastroenterology. 1985; 89: 259266
PubMed

[90]Makuuchi, M., Kokudo, N., Arii, S., Futagawa, S., Kaneko, S., Kawasaki, S. et al. Development of evidence-based clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. Hepatol Res. 2008; 38: 3751
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (120)

[91]Trinchet, J.C., Chaffaut, C., Bourcier, V., Degos, F., Henrion, J., Fontaine, H. et al. Ultrasonographic surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: a randomized trial comparing 3- and 6-month periodicities. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 19871997
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (20)

[92]Santagostino, E., Colombo, M., Rivi, M., Rumi, M.G., Rocino, A., Linari, S. et al. A 6-month versus a 12-month surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in 559 hemophiliacs infected with the hepatitis C virus. Blood. 2003; 102: 7882
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (43)

[93]Thompson Coon, J., Rogers, G., Hewson, P., Wright, D., Anderson, R. et al. Surveillance of cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and economic analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2007; 11: 1206
PubMed

[94]Trevisani, F., Cantarini, M.C., Morselli Labate, A.M., De Notariis, S., Rapaccini, G., Farinati, F. et al. Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in elderly Italian patients with cirrhosis. Effects on cancer staging and patients survival. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 14701476
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (60)

[95]Nouso, K., Tanaka, H., Uematsu, S., Shiraga, K., Okamoto, R., Onishi, H. et al. Costeffectiveness of the surveillance program of hepatocellular carcinoma depends on the medical circumstances. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 23: 437444
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (16)

[96]Trevisani, F., De Notariis, S., Rapaccini, G., Farinati, F., Benvegn, L., Zoli, M. et al. Semiannual and annual surveillance of cirrhotic patients for hepatocellular carcinoma: effects on cancer stage and patients survival (Italian experience). Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 734744
CrossRef | PubMed

[97]Santi, V., Trevisani, F., Gramenzi, A., Grignaschi, A., Mirici-Cappa, F., Del Poggio, P. et al. Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) Group. Semiannual surveillance is superior to annual surveillance for the detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma and patient survival. J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 291297
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (52)

[98]Andersson, K.L., Salomon, J.A., Goldie, S.J., and Chung, R.T. Cost effectiveness of alternative surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 6: 14181424
PubMed | Scopus (31)

[99]Llovet, J.M., Burroughs, A., and Bruix, J. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet. 2003; 362: 19071917
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (1956)

[100]Lencioni, R. and Llovet, J.M. Modified RECIST (mRECIST) assessment for hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 2010; 30: 5260
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (282)

[101]Roskams, T. Anatomic pathology impact on prognosis and response to therapy. Clin Liver Dis. 2011; 15: 245259
PubMed | Scopus (7)

[102]Llovet, J.M. and Bruix, J. Novel advancements in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma in 2008. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: S20S37
PubMed | Scopus (358)

[103]Bolondi, L., Gaiani, S., Celli, N., Golfieri, R., Grigioni, W.F., Leoni, S. et al. Characterization of small nodules in cirrhosis by assessment of vascularity: the problem of hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 2734
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (195)

[104]Forner, A., Vilana, R., Ayuso, C., Bianchi, L., Sol, M., Ayuso, J.R. et al. Diagnosis of hepatic nodules 20 mm or smaller in cirrhosis: prospective validation of the noninvasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 97104
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (255)

[105]Roskams, T. and Kojiro, M. Pathology of early hepatocellular carcinoma: conventional and molecular diagnosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2010; 30: 1725
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (33)

[106]Terasaki, S., Kaneko, S., Kobayashi, K., Nonomura, A., and Nakanuma, Y. Histological features predicting malignant transformation of nonmalignant hepatocellular nodules: a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1998; 115: 12161222
PubMed | Scopus (72)

[107]Borzio, M., Fargion, S., Borzio, F., Fracanzani, A.L., Croce, A.M., Stroffolini, T. et al. Impact of large regenerative, low grade and high grade dysplastic nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma development. J Hepatol. 2003; 39: 208214
PubMed | Scopus (93)

[108]Stigliano, R., Marelli, L., Yu, D., Davies, N., Patch, D., and Burroughs, A.K. Seeding following percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma. What is the risk and the outcome? Seeding risk for percutaneous approach of HCC. Cancer Treat Rev. 2007; 33: 437447
PubMed | Scopus (97)

[109]Bruix, J. and Sherman, M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 12081236
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (2344)

[110]Sangiovanni, A., Manini, M.A., Iavarone, M., Romeo, R., Forzenigo, L.V., Fraquelli, M. et al. The diagnostic and economic impact of contrast imaging techniques in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. Gut. 2010; 59: 638644
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (83)

[111]Yu, N.C., Chaudhari, V., Raman, S.S., Lassman, C., Tong, M.J., Busuttil, R.W. et al. CT and MRI improve detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, compared with ultrasound alone, in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 9: 161167
PubMed | Scopus (19)

[112]Serst, T., Barrau, V., Ozenne, V., Vullierme, M.P., Bedossa, P., Farges, O. et al. Accuracy and disagreement of CT and MRI for the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodules: role of biopsy. Hepatology. 2011; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.24746 ([Epub ahead of print])
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.24746 | CrossRef | Scopus (9)

[113]Rimola, J., Forner, A., Reig, M., Vilana, R., de Lope, C.R., Ayuso, C. et al. Cholangiocarcinoma in cirrhosis: absence of contrast washout in delayed phases by magnetic resonance imaging avoids misdiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2009; 50: 791798
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (50)

[114]Lencioni, R., Cioni, D., Della Pina, C., Crocetti, L., and Bartolozzi, C. Imaging diagnosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2005; 25: 162170
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (50)

[115]International Consensus Group for Hepatocellular Neoplasia. Pathologic diagnosis of early hepatocellular carcinoma: a report of the international consensus group for hepatocellular neoplasia. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 658664
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (148)

[116]Silva, M.A., Hegab, B., Hyde, C., Guo, B., Buckels, J.A., and Mirza, D.F. Needle track seeding following biopsy of liver lesions in the diagnosis of hepatocellular cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut. 2008; 57: 15921596
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (86)

[117]Colombat, M., Paradis, V., Biche, I., Dargre, D., Laurendeau, I., Belghiti, J. et al. Quantitative RT-PCR in cirrhotic nodules reveals gene expression changes associated with liver carcinogenesis. J Pathol. 2003; 201: 260267
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (16)

[118]Llovet, J.M., Chen, Y., Wurmbach, E., Roayaie, S., Fiel, M.I., Schwartz, M. et al. A molecular signature to discriminate dysplastic nodules from early hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 17581767
PubMed | Scopus (175)

[119]Wurmbach, E., Chen, Y.B., Khitrov, G., Zhang, W., Roayaie, S., Schwartz, M. et al. Genome-wide molecular profiles of HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 938947
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (156)

[120]Di Tommaso, L., Franchi, G., Park, Y.N., Fiamengo, B., Destro, A., Morenghi, E. et al. Diagnostic value of HSP70, glypican 3, and glutamine synthetase in hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 725734
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (118)

[121]Capurro, M., Wanless, I.R., Sherman, M., Deboer, G., Shi, W., Miyoshi, E. et al. Glypican-3: a novel serum and histochemical marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2003; 125: 8997
PubMed | Scopus (308)

[122]Di Tommaso, L., Destro, A., Seok, J.Y., Balladore, E., Terracciano, L., Sangiovanni, A. et al. The application of markers (HSP70 GPC3 and GS) in liver biopsies is useful for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 746754
PubMed | Scopus (65)

[123]Tremosini S, Forner A, Boix L, Rimola J, Rodrguez de Lope C, Reig M, et al. Biopsy diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma <2 cm: prospective validation of glypican 3, heat-shock protein 70 and glutamine synthetase staining in fine needle biopsy samples. ILCA book of abstracts; 2011.

[124]Durnez, A., Verslype, C., Nevens, F., Fevery, J., Aerts, R., Pirenne, J. et al. The clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of cytokeratin 7 and 19 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. A possible progenitor cell origin. Histopathology. 2006; 49: 138151
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (137)

[125]Kim, H., Choi, G.H., Na, D.C., Ahn, E.Y., Kim, G.I., Lee, J.E. et al. Human hepatocellular carcinomas with Stemness-related marker expression: keratin 19 expression and a poor prognosis. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 17071717
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (24)

[126]Colli, A., Fraquelli, M., Casazza, G., Massironi, S., Colucci, A., Conte, D. et al. Accuracy of ultrasonography, spiral CT, magnetic resonance, and alpha-fetoprotein in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 513523
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (152)

[127]Burrel, M., Llovet, J.M., Ayuso, C., Iglesias, C., Sala, M., Miquel, R. et al. MRI angiography is superior to helical CT for detection of HCC prior to liver transplantation: an explant correlation. Hepatology. 2003; 38: 10341042
CrossRef | PubMed

[128]DAmico, G., Garcia-Tsao, G., and Pagliaro, L. Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis: a systematic review of 118 studies. J Hepatol. 2006; 44: 217231
PubMed | Scopus (362)

[129]Okuda, K., Ohtsuki, T., Obata, H., Tomimatsu, M., Okazaki, N., Hasegawa, H. et al. Natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma and prognosis in relation to treatment. Study of 850 patients. Cancer. 1985; 56: 918928
CrossRef | PubMed

[130]The Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) Investigators. A new prognostic system for hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study of 435 patients. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 751755
CrossRef | PubMed

[131]Llovet, J.M., Bustamante, J., Castells, A., Vilana, R., Ayuso, M.del C., Sala, M. et al. Natural history of untreated nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma: rationale for the design and evaluation of therapeutic trials. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 6267
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (470)

[132]Villa, E., Moles, A., Ferretti, I., Buttafoco, P., Grottola, A., Del Buono, M. et al. Natural history of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma: estrogen receptors status in the tumor is the strongest prognostic factor for survival. Hepatology. 2000; 32: 233238
CrossRef | PubMed

[133]Cabibbo, G., Enea, M., Attanasio, M., Bruix, J., Crax, A., and Camm, C. A meta-analysis of survival rates of untreated patients in randomized clinical trials of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 12741283
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (49)

[134]Simon, R.M., Paik, S., and Hayes, D.F. Use of archived specimens in evaluation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009; 101: 14461452
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (175)

[135]Ji, J., Shi, J., Budhu, A., Yu, Z., Forgues, M., Roessler, S. et al. MicroRNA expression, survival, and response to interferon in liver cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 14371447
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (247)

[136]Villanueva, A., Hoshida, Y., Battiston, C., Tovar, V., Sia, D., Alsinet, C. et al. Combining clinical, pathology, and gene expression data to predict recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 15011512
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (60)

[137]Hoshida, Y., Villanueva, A., Kobayashi, M., Peix, J., Chiang, D.Y., Camargo, A. et al. Gene expression in fixed tissues and outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 19952004
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (379)

[138]Llovet, J.M., Pea, C., Shan, M., Lathia, C., and Bruix, J. Biomarkers predicting outcome of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) randomized in the phase III SHARP trial. Presidential plenary session, AASLD 59th annual meeting, San Francisco. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 372A
CrossRef | Scopus (376)

[139]Llovet, J.M. and Bruix, J. Systematic review of randomized trials for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: chemoembolization improves survival. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 429442
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1149)

[140]Vibert, E., Azuolay, D., Hoti, E., Iacopinelli, S., Samuel, D., Salloum, C. et al. Progression of alphafetoprotein before liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: a critical factor. Am J Transplant. 2010; 10: 127137
CrossRef | Scopus (48)

[141]Toso, C., Trotter, J., Wei, A., Bigam, D.L., Shah, S., Lancaster, J. et al. Total tumor volume predicts risk of recurrence following liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Transpl. 2008; 8: 11071115
CrossRef | Scopus (69)

[142]NKontchou, G., Mahamoudi, A., Aout, M., Ganne-Carri, N., Grando, V., Coderc, E. et al. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term results and prognostic factors in 235 Western patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2009; 50: 14751483
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (85)

[143]Riaz, A., Kulik, L., Lewandowski, R.J., Ryu, R.K., Giakoumis Spear, G., Mulcahy, M.F. et al. Radiologicpathologic correlation of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with internal radiation using yttrium-90 microspheres. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 11851193
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (68)

[144]Vora, S.R., Zheng, H., Stadler, Z.K., Fuchs, C.S., and Zhu, A.X. Serum alpha-fetoprotein response as a surrogate for clinical outcome in patients receiving systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncologist. 2009; 14: 717725
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (34)

[145]in: S.B. Edge, D.R. Byrd, C.C. Compton, A.G. Fritz, F.L. Greene, A. Trotti (Eds.) AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook. 7th ed. Springer, New York; 2010

[146]Llovet, J.M., Bruix, J., Fuster, J., Castells, A., Garca-Valdecasas, J.C., Grande, L. et al. Liver transplantation for treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma: the TNM classification does not have prognostic power. Hepatology. 1998; 27: 15721577
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (292)

[147]Chevret, S., Trinchet, J.C., Mathieu, D., Rached, A.A., Beaugrand, M., and Chastang, C. A new prognostic classification for predicting survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Groupe dEtude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hpatocellulaire. J Hepatol. 1999; 31: 133141
PubMed | Scopus (235)

[148]Llovet, J.M., Br, C., and Bruix, J. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: the BCLC staging classification. Semin Liver Dis. 1999; 19: 329338
CrossRef | PubMed

[149]Llovet, J.M., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Bruix, J., Kramer, B.S., Lencioni, R., Zhu, A.X. et al. Design and endpoints of clinical trials in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 698711
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (598)

[150]Leung, T.W., Tang, A.M., Zee, B., Lau, W.Y., Lai, P.B., Leung, K.L. et al. Construction of the Chinese University Prognostic Index for hepatocellular carcinoma and comparison with the TNM staging system, the Okuda staging system, and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program staging system: a study based on 926 patients. Cancer. 2002; 94: 17601769
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (207)

[151]Kitai, S., Kudo, M., Minami, Y., Haji, S., Osaki, Y., Oka, H. et al. Validation of a new prognostic staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison of the biomarker-combined Japan Integrated Staging Score, the conventional Japan Integrated Staging Score and the BALAD Score. Oncology. 2008; 75: S83S90
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (19)

[152]Marrero, J., Fontana, R.J., Barrat, A., Askari, F., Conjeevaram, H.S., Su, G.L. et al. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of 7 staging systems in an American cohort. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 707716
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (215)

[153]Cillo, U., Vitale, A., Grigoletto, F., Farinati, F., Brolese, A., Zanus, G. et al. Prospective validation of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. J Hepatol. 2006; 44: 723731
PubMed | Scopus (116)

[154]Guglielmi, A., Ruzzenente, A., Pachera, S., Valdegamberi, A., Sandri, M., DOnofrio, M. et al. Comparison of seven staging systems in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in a cohort of patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation with complete response. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 597604
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (31)

[155]Kudo, M. Review of 4th Single Topic Conference on HCC. Hepatocellular carcinoma: international consensus and controversies. Hepatol Res. 2007; 37: S83S87
CrossRef | PubMed

[156]Takayama, T., Makuuchi, M., Hirohashi, S., Sakamoto, M., Yamamoto, J., Shimada, K. et al. Early hepatocellular carcinoma as an entity with a high rate of surgical cure. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 12411246
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (220)

[157]Roayaie, S., Blume, I.N., Thung, S.N., Guido, M., Fiel, M.I., Hiotis, S. et al. A system of classifying microvascular invasion to predict outcome after resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2009; 137: 850855
PubMed | Scopus (49)

[158]Roayaie S, Llovet JM, Obeidat K, Labow D, Sposito C, Pellegrinelli A, et al. Hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma <2 cm in diameter. Hepatology, in press.

[159]Livraghi, T., Meloni, F., Di Stasi, M., Rolle, E., Solbiati, L., Tinelli, C. et al. Sustained complete response and complications rates after radiofrequency ablation of very early hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: is resection still the treatment of choice?. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 8289
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (307)

[160]Arii, S., Yamaoka, Y., Futagawa, S., Inoue, K., Kobayashi, K., Kojiro, M. et al. Results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment for small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas: a retrospective and nationwide survey in Japan. The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. Hepatology. 2000; 32: 12241229
CrossRef | PubMed

[161]Llovet, J.M., Fuster, J., and Bruix, J. Intention-to-treat analysis of surgical treatment for early hepatocellular carcinoma: resection versus transplantation. Hepatology. 1999; 30: 14341440
CrossRef | PubMed

[162]Sala, M., Llovet, J.M., Vilana, R., Bianchi, L., Sol, M., Ayuso, C. et al. Barcelona Clnic Liver Cancer Group. Initial response to percutaneous ablation predicts survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 13521360
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (205)

[163]Lopez, P.M., Villanueva, A., and Llovet, J.M. Systematic review: evidence-based management of hepatocellular carcinoma an updated analysis of randomized controlled trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 23: 15351547
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (182)

[164]Llovet, J.M. and Bruix, J. Molecular targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 13121327
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (376)

[165]Takayasu, K., Arii, S., Ikai, I., Omata, M., Okita, K., Ichida, T. et al. Prospective cohort study of transarterial chemoembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in 8510 patients. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 461469
PubMed | Scopus (313)

[166]Varela, M., Real, M.I., Burrel, M., Forner, A., Sala, M., Brunet, M. et al. Chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma with drug eluting beads: efficacy and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics. J Hepatol. 2007; 46: 474481
PubMed | Scopus (278)

[167]Burrel M, Reig M, Forner A, Barrufet M, Rodrguez de Lope C, Tremosini S, et al. Survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using DC beads. Implications for clinical practice and trial design. J Hepatol, in press.

[168]Llovet, J.M., Ricci, S., Mazzaferro, V., Hilgard, P., Gane, E., Blanc, J.F. et al. SHARP Investigators Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 378390
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (2411)

[169]Raoul, J.L., Sangro, B., Forner, A., Mazzaferro, V., Piscaglia, F., Bolondi, L. et al. Evolving strategies for the management of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: Available evidence and expert opinion on the use of transarterial chemoembolization. Cancer Treat Rev. 2011; 37: 212220
PubMed | Scopus (70)

[170]Huitzil-Melendez, F.D., Capanu, M., OReilly, E.M., Duffy, A., Gansukh, B., Saltz, L.L. et al. Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: which staging systems best predict prognosis?. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 28892895
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (40)

[171]Slamon, D.J., Leyland-Jones, B., Shak, S., Fuchs, H., Paton, V., Bajamonde, A. et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 783792
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (4938)

[172]Tsao, M.S., Sakurada, A., Cutz, J.C., Zhu, C.Q., Kamel-Reid, S., Squire, J. et al. Erlotinib in lung cancer molecular and clinical predictors of outcome. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 133144
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1235)

[173]Flaherty, K.T., Puzanov, I., Kim, K.B., Ribas, A., McArthur, G.A., Sosman, J.A. et al. Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363: 809819
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1053)

[174]Boyault, S., Rickman, D.S., de Reynis, A., Balabaud, C., Rebouissou, S., Jeannot, E. et al. Transcriptome classification of HCC is related to gene alterations and to new therapeutic targets. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 4252
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (261)

[175]Chiang, D.Y., Villanueva, A., Hoshida, Y., Peix, J., Newell, P., Minguez, B. et al. Focal gains of VEGFA and molecular classification of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008; 68: 67796788
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (122)

[176]Llovet, J.M., Schwartz, M., and Mazzaferro, V. Resection and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 2005; 25: 181200
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (293)

[177]Mazzaferro, V., Bhoori, S., Sposito, C., Bongini, M., Langer, M., Miceli, R. et al. Milan criteria in liver transplantation for HCC: an evidence-based analysis on 15 years of experience. Liver Transpl. 2011; 17: S44S57
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (26)

[178]Belghiti, J., Hiramatsu, K., Benoist, S., Massault, P., Sauvanet, A., and Farges, O. Seven hundred forty-seven hepatectomies in the 1990s: an update to evaluate the actual risk of liver resection. J Am Coll Surg. 2000; 191: 3846
PubMed | Scopus (538)

[179]Lang, H., Sotiropoulos, G.C., Dmland, M., Frhauf, N.R., Paul, A., Hsing, J. et al. Liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver without underlying viral hepatitis. Br J Surg. 2005; 92: 198202
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (43)

[180]Poon, R.T., Fan, S.T., Lo, C.M., Liu, C.L., Lam, C.M., Yuen, W.K. et al. Extended hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: is it justified?. Ann Surg. 2002; 236: 602611
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (76)

[181]Mazzaferro, V., Romito, R., Schiavo, M., Mariani, L., Camerini, T., Bhoori, S. et al. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence with alpha-interferon after liver resection in HCV cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2006; 44: 15431554
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (149)

[182]Ishizawa, T., Hasegawa, K., Aoki, T., Takahashi, M., Inoue, Y., Sano, K. et al. Neither multiple tumors nor portal hypertension are surgical contraindications for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 19081916
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (114)

[183]Makuuchi, M. and Sano, K. The surgical approach to HCC: our progress and results in Japan. Liver Transpl. 2004; 10: S46S52
CrossRef | PubMed

[184]Arii, S., Tanaka, S., Mitsunori, Y., Nakamura, N., Kudo, A., Noguchi, N. et al. Surgical strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma with special reference to anatomical hepatic resection and intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Oncology. 2010; 78: 125130
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[185]Shi, M., Guo, R.P., Lin, X.J., Zhang, Y.Q., Chen, M.S., Zhang, C.Q. et al. Partial hepatectomy with wide versus narrow resection margin for solitary hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2007; 245: 3643
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (107)

[186]Makuuchi, M., Kosuge, T., Takayama, T., Yamazaki, S., Kakazu, T., Miyagawa, S. et al. Surgery for small liver cancers. Semin Surg Oncol. 1993; 9: 298304
CrossRef | PubMed

[187]Bruix, J., Castells, A., Bosch, J., Feu, F., Fuster, J., and Garcia-Pagan, J.C. Surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: prognostic value of preoperative portal pressure. Gastroenterology. 1996; 111: 10181022
PubMed

[188]Simpson, K.J. and Finlayson, N.D. Clinical evaluation of liver disease Baillieres. Clin Gastroenterol. 1995; 9: 639659

[189]Cucchetti, A., Piscaglia, F., Caturelli, E., Benvegn, L., Vivarelli, M., Ercolani, G. et al. Comparison of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after resection in patients with cirrhosis to its occurrence in a surveilled cirrhotic population. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009; 16: 413422
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (36)

[190]Farges, O., Belghiti, J., Kianmanesh, R., Regimbeau, J.M., Santoro, R., Vilgrain, V. et al. Portal vein embolization before right hepatectomy: prospective clinical trial. Ann Surg. 2003; 237: 208217
PubMed

[191]Abulkhir, A., Limongelli, P., Healey, A.J., Damrah, O., Tait, P., Jackson, J. et al. Preoperative portal vein embolization for major liver resection: a meta-analysis. Ann Surg. 2008; 247: 4957
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (152)

[192]Croome, K.P. and Yamashita, M.H. Laparoscopic vs open hepatic resection for benign and malignant tumors: an updated meta-analysis. Arch Surg. 2010; 145: 11091118
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (16)

[193]Torzilli, G., Olivari, N., Moroni, E., Del Fabbro, D., Gambetti, A., Leoni, P. et al. Contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasonography in surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. Liver Transpl. 2004; 10: S34S38
CrossRef | PubMed

[194]Ikai, I., Arii, S., Kojiro, M., Ichida, T., Makuuchi, M., Matsuyama, Y. et al. Reevaluation of prognostic factors for survival after liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese nationwide survey. Cancer. 2004; 101: 796802
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (189)

[195]Vauthey, J.N., Lauwers, G.Y., Esnaola, N.F., Do, K.A., Belghiti, J., Mirza, N. et al. Simplified staging for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 15271536
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (304)

[196]Belghiti, J., Panis, Y., Farges, O., Benhamou, J.P., and Fekete, F. Intrahepatic recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma complicating cirrhosis. Ann Surg. 1991; 214: 114117
CrossRef | PubMed

[197]Finkelstein, S.D., Marsh, W., Demetris, A.J., Swalsky, P.A., Sasatomi, E., Bonham, A. et al. Microdissection-based allelotyping discriminates de novo tumor from intrahepatic spread in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 871879
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (58)

[198]Imamura, H., Matsuyama, Y., Tanaka, E., Ohkubo, T., Hasegawa, K., Miyagawa, S. et al. Risk factors contributing to early and late phase intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. J Hepatol. 2003; 38: 200207
PubMed | Scopus (319)

[199]Miyake, Y., Takaki, A., Iwasaki, Y., and Yamamoto, K. Meta-analysis: interferon-alpha prevents the recurrence after curative treatment of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Viral Hepat. 2010; 17: 287292
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (27)

[200]Shen, Y.C., Hsu, C., Chen, L.T., Cheng, C.C., Hu, F.C., and Cheng, A.L. Adjuvant interferon therapy after curative therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a meta-regression approach. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 889894
PubMed | Scopus (29)

[201]Singal, A.G., Waljee, A.K., Shiffman, M., Bacon, B.R., and Schoenfeld, P.S. Meta-analysis: re-treatment of genotype I hepatitis C nonresponders and relapsers after failing interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 32: 969983
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (8)

[202]Yamasaki, S., Hasegawa, H., Kinoshita, H., Furukawa, M., Imaoka, S., Takasaki, K. et al. A prospective randomized trial of the preventive effect of pre-operative transcatheter arterial embolization against recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1996; 87: 206211
CrossRef | PubMed

[203]Lau, W.Y., Leung, T.W., Ho, S.K., Chan, M., Machin, D., Lau, J. et al. Adjuvant intra-arterial iodine-131-labelled lipiodol for resectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective randomised trial. Lancet. 1999; 353: 797801
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (313)

[204]Boucher, E., Corbinais, S., Rolland, Y., Bourguet, P., Guyader, D., Boudjema, K. et al. Adjuvant intra-arterial injection of iodine-131-labeled lipiodol after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2003; 38: 12371241
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (66)

[205]Takayama, T., Sekine, T., Makuuchi, M., Yamasaki, S., Kosuge, T., Yamamoto, J. et al. Adoptive immunotherapy to lower postsurgical recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000; 356: 802807
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (440)

[206]Muto, Y., Moriwaki, H., Ninomiya, M., Adachi, S., Saito, A., Takasaki, K.T. et al. Prevention of second primary tumors by an acyclic retinoid, polyprenoic acid, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatoma Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 15611567
CrossRef | PubMed

[207]Okita K, Matsui O, Kumada H, Tanaka K, Kaneko S, Moriwaki H, et al. Peretinoin Study Group. Peretinoin reduces recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a phase II/III randomized placebo-controlled trial. Book of Abstracts, ILCA 2010:11A.

[208]Yoshida, H., Shiratori, Y., Kudo, M., Shiina, S., Mizuta, T., Kojiro, M. et al. Effect of vitamin K2 on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 532540
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[209]Samuel, M., Chow, P.K., Chan Shih-Yen, E., Machin, D., and Soo, K.C. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 21: CD001199

[210]Iwatsuki, S., Starzl, T.E., Sheahan, D.G., Yokoyama, I., Demetris, A.J., Todo, S. et al. Hepatic resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg. 1991; 214: 221228
CrossRef | PubMed

[211]Iwatsuki, S., Esquivel, C.O., Gordon, R.D., Shaw, B.W. Jr., Starzl, T.E., Shade, R.R. et al. Liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. Semin Liver Dis. 1985; 5: 325328
CrossRef | PubMed

[212]Mazzaferro, V., Regalia, E., Doci, R., Andreola, S., Pulvirenti, A., Bozzetti, F. et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 693699
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (2791)

[213]Bismuth, H., Majno, P.E., and Adam, R. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 1999; 19: 311322
CrossRef | PubMed

[214]Bismuth, H., Chiche, L., Adam, R., Castaing, D., Diamond, T., and Dennison, A. Liver resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. Ann Surg. 1993; 218: 145151
CrossRef | PubMed

[215]Jonas, S., Bechstein, W.O., Steinmller, T., Herrmann, M., Radke, C., Berg, T. et al. Vascular invasion and histopathologic grading determine outcome after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 10801086
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (491)

[216]ELTR European Liver Transplant Registry. <www.eltr.org/>; 2011 [accessed 03.11].
www.eltr.org

[217]OPTN Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. <http://www.ustransplant.org/annual_reports/current/>; 2011 [accessed 02.11].
http://www.ustransplant.org/annual_reports/current

[218]Freeman, R.B. Jr., Wiesner, R.H., Harper, A., McDiarmid, S.V., Lake, J., Edwards, E. et al. UNOS/OPTN Liver Disease Severity Score, UNOS/OPTN Liver and Intestine, and UNOS/OPTN Pediatric Transplantation Committees. The new liver allocation system: moving toward evidence-based transplantation policy. Liver Transpl. 2002; 8: 851858
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (294)

[219]Clavien, P.A., Lesurtel, M., Bossuyt, P.M., Gores, G.J., Langer, B., Perrier, A. et al. Recommendations for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: an international consensus conference report. Lancet Oncol. 2012; 13: e11e22
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (58)

[220]Yao, F.Y., Ferrell, L., Bass, N.M., Watson, J.J., Bacchetti, P., Venook, A. et al. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: expansion of the tumor size limits does not adversely impact survival. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 13941403
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (806)

[221]Kamath, P.S., Wiesner, R.H., Malinchoc, M., Kremers, W., Therneau, T.M., Kosberg, C.L. et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 464470
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1566)

[222]Pomfret, E.A., Washburn, K., Wald, C., Nalesnik, M.A., Douglas, D., Russo, M. et al. Report of a national conference on liver allocation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Liver Transpl. 2010; 16: 262278
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (94)

[223]Sala, M., Fuster, J., Llovet, J.M., Navasa, M., Sol, M., Varela, M. et al. High pathological risk of recurrence after surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: an indication for salvage liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2004; 10: 12941300
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (129)

[224]Mazzaferro, V., Battiston, C., Perrone, S., Pulvirenti, A., Regalia, E., Romito, R. et al. Radiofrequency ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation: a prospective study. Ann Surg. 2004; 240: 900909
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (268)

[225]Lu, D.S., Yu, N.C., Raman, S.S., Lassman, C., Tong, M.J., Britten, C. et al. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma as a bridge to liver transplantation. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 11301137
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (175)

[226]Majno, P.E., Adam, R., Bismuth, H., Castaing, D., Ariche, A., Krissat, J. et al. Influence of preoperative transarterial lipiodol chemoembolization on resection and transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Ann Surg. 1997; 226: 688701
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (319)

[227]Decaens, T., Roudot-Thoraval, F., Bresson-Hadni, S., Meyer, C., Gugenheim, J., Durand, F. et al. Impact of pretransplantation transarterial chemoembolization on survival and recurrence after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Transpl. 2005; 11: 767775
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (118)

[228]Porrett, P.M., Peterman, H., Rosen, M., Sonnad, S., Soulen, M., Markmann, J.F. et al. Lack of benefit of pre-transplant locoregional hepatic therapy for hepatocellular cancer in the current MELD era. Liver Transpl. 2006; 12: 665673
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (81)

[229]Llovet, J.M., Mas, X., Aponte, J.J., Fuster, J., Navasa, M., Christensen, E. et al. Cost effectiveness of adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma during the waiting list for liver transplantation. Gut. 2002; 50: 123128
CrossRef | PubMed

[230]Vitale, A., Volk, M.L., Pastorelli, D., Lonardi, S., Farinati, F., Burra, P. et al. Use of sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before liver transplantation: a costbenefit analysis while awaiting data on sorafenib safety. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 165173
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (31)

[231]Truesdale, A.E., Caldwell, S.H., Shah, N.L., Argo, C.K., Al-Osaimi, A.M., Schmitt, T.M. et al. Sorafenib therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplant is associated with increased complications after transplant. Transpl Int. 2011; 24: 991998
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (10)

[232]Yao, F.Y., Xiao, L., Bass, N.M., Kerlan, R., Ascher, N.L., and Roberts, J.P. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: validation of the UCSF-expanded criteria based on preoperative imaging. Am J Transplant. 2007; 7: 25872596
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (160)

[233]Mazzaferro, V., Llovet, J.M., Miceli, R., Bhoori, S., Schiavo, M., Mariani, L. et al. Metroticket Investigator Study Group. Predicting survival after liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma beyond the Milan criteria: a retrospective, exploratory analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2009; 10: 3543
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (291)

[234]Raj, A., McCall, J., and Gane, E. Validation of the Metroticket predictor in a cohort of patients transplanted for predominantly HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2011; 55: 10631068
PubMed | Scopus (5)

[235]Germani, G., Gurusamy, K., Garcovich, M., Toso, C., Fede, G., Hemming, A. et al. Which matters most: number of tumors, size of the largest tumor, or total tumor volume?. Liver Transpl. 2011; 17: S58S66
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (11)

[236]Schwartz, M., Dvorchik, I., Roayaie, S., Fiel, M.I., Finkelstein, S., Marsh, J.W. et al. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: extension of indications based on molecular markers. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 581588
PubMed | Scopus (40)

[237]Yao, F.Y., Kerlan, R.K. Jr., Hirose, R., Davern, T.J. 3rd, Bass, N.M., Feng, S. et al. Excellent outcome following down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation: an intention-to-treat analysis. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 819827
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (158)

[238]Ravaioli, M., Grazi, G.L., Piscaglia, F., Trevisani, F., Cescon, M., Ercolani, G. et al. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: results of down-staging in patients initially outside the Milan selection criteria. Am J Transplant. 2008; 8: 25472557
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (81)

[239]Neuberger, J. Liver allocation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Transpl. 2010; 16: 249251
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (4)

[240]Bhoori, S., Sposito, C., Germini, A., Coppa, J., and Mazzaferro, V. The challenges of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma on cirrhosis. Transpl Int. 2010; 23: 712722
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (18)

[241]Trotter, J.F., Wachs, M., Everson, G.T., and Kam, I. Adult-to-adult transplantation of the right hepatic lobe from a living donor. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 10741082
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (316)

[242]Clavien, P.A., Petrowsky, H., DeOliveira, M.L., and Graf, R. Strategies for safer liver surgery and partial liver transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 15451559
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (246)

[243]Bruix, J. and Llovet, J.M. Prognostic prediction and treatment strategy in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2002; 35: 519524
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (571)

[244]Siegler, M., Simmerling, M.C., Siegler, J.H., and Cronin, D.C. 2nd. Recipient deaths during donor surgery: a new ethical problem in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Liver Transpl. 2006; 12: 358360
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (9)

[245]Ghobrial, R.M., Freise, C.E., Trotter, J.F., Tong, L., Ojo, A.O., Fair, J.H. et al. A2ALL Study Group. Donor morbidity after living donation for liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135: 468476
PubMed | Scopus (137)

[246]Browns, R.S. Jr. Live donors in liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 18021813
PubMed | Scopus (59)

[247]Cronin, D.C. 2nd and Millis, J.M. Living donor liver transplantation: the ethics and the practice. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 1113
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (9)

[248]Sarasin, F.P., Majno, P.E., Llovet, J.M., Bruix, J., Mentha, G., and Hadengue, A. Living donor liver transplantation for early hepatocellular carcinoma: a life-expectancy and costeffectiveness perspective. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 10731079
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (182)

[249]Lo, C.M., Fan, S.T., Liu, C.L., Chan, S.C., Ng, I.O., and Wong, J. Living donor versus deceased donor liver transplantation for early irresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Surg. 2007; 94: 7886
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (78)

[250]Fisher, R.A., Kulik, L.M., Freise, C.E., Lok, A.S., Shearon, T.H., Brown, R.S. Jr. et al. A2ALL Study Group. Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and death following living and deceased donor liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2007; 7: 16011608
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (89)

[251]Kulik, L. and Abecassis, M. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S277S282
PubMed | Scopus (79)

[252]Majno, P. and Mazzaferro, V. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma exceeding conventional criteria: questions, answers and demands for a common language. Liver Transpl. 2006; 12: 896898
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (19)

[253]Lencioni, R. Loco-regional treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 762773
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (112)

[254]Livraghi, T., Bolondi, L., Lazzaroni, S., Marin, G., Morabito, A., Rapaccini, G.L. et al. Percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. A study on 207 patients. Cancer. 1992; 15: 925929
CrossRef

[255]Kuang, M., Lu, M.D., Xie, X.Y., Xu, H.X., Xu, Z.F., Liu, G.J. et al. Percutaneous ethanol ablation of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma by using a multi-pronged needle with single treatment session and high-dose ethanol injection. Radiology. 2009; 253: 552561
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (19)

[256]Lencioni, R., Bartolozzi, C., Caramella, D., Paolicchi, A., Carrai, M., Maltinti, G. et al. Treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma with percutaneous ethanol injection. Analysis of prognostic factors in 105 Western patients. Cancer. 1995; 76: 17371746
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (158)

[257]Livraghi, T., Giorgio, A., Marin, G., Salmi, A., De Sio, I., Bolondi, L. et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in 746 patients: long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection. Radiology. 1995; 197: 101108
PubMed

[258]Khan, K.N., Yatsuhashi, H., Yamasaki, K., Yamasaki, M., Inoue, O., Koga, M. et al. Prospective analysis of risk factors for early intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma following ethanol injection. J Hepatol. 2000; 32: 269278
PubMed | Scopus (75)

[259]Huo, T.I., Huang, Y.H., Wu, J.C., Lee, P.C., Chang, F.Y., Lee, S.D. et al. Comparison of percutaneous acetic acid injection and percutaneous ethanol injection for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: a prospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003; 38: 770778
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (53)

[260]Lin, S.M., Lin, C.J., Lin, C.C., Hsu, C.W., and Chen, Y.C. Randomised controlled trial comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, and percutaneous acetic acid injection to treat hepatocellular carcinoma of 3 cm or less. Gut. 2005; 54: 11511156
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (265)

[261]Shiina, S., Teratani, T., Obi, S., Sato, S., Tateishi, R., Fujishima, T. et al. A randomized controlled trial of radiofrequency ablation versus ethanol injection for small hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2005; 129: 122130
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (425)

[262]Lin, S.M., Lin, C.J., Lin, C.C., Hsu, C.W., and Chen, Y.C. Radiofrequency ablation improves prognosis compared with ethanol injection for hepatocellular carcinoma < or =4 cm. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 17141723
PubMed | Scopus (336)

[263]Lencioni, R., Allgaier, H.P., Cioni, D., Olschewski, M., Deibert, P., Crocetti, L. et al. Small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: randomized comparison of radio-frequency thermal ablation versus percutaneous ethanol injection. Radiology. 2003; 228: 235240
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (579)

[264]Brunello, F., Veltri, A., Carucci, P., Pagano, E., Ciccone, G., Moretto, P. et al. Radiofrequency ablation versus ethanol injection for early hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008; 43: 727735
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (88)

[265]Cho, Y.K., Kim, J.K., Kim, M.Y., Rhim, H., and Han, J.K. Systematic review of randomized trials for hepatocellular carcinoma treated with percutaneous ablation therapies. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 453459
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (141)

[266]Germani, G., Pleguezuelo, M., Gurusamy, K., Meyer, T., Isgro, G., and Burroughs, A.K. Clinical outcomes of radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous alcohol and acetic acid injection for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 380388
PubMed | Scopus (56)

[267]Bouza, C., Lpez-Cuadrado, T., Alczar, R., Saz-Parkinson, Z., and Amate, J.M. Meta-analysis of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation versus ethanol injection in hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009; 9: 31
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (56)

[268]Imamura, J., Tateishi, R., Shiina, S., Goto, E., Sato, T., Ohki, T. et al. Neoplastic seeding after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 30573062
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (31)

[269]Lencioni, R., Cioni, D., Crocetti, L., Franchini, C., Pina, C.D., Lera, J. et al. Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: long-term results of percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation. Radiology. 2005; 234: 961996
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (381)

[270]Omata, M., Tateishi, R., Yoshida, H., and Shiina, S. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by percutaneous tumor ablation methods: ethanol injection therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S159S166
PubMed | Scopus (145)

[271]Lencioni, R. and Llovet, J.M. Percutaneous ethanol injection in hepatocellular carcinoma: alive or dead. J Hepatol. 2005; 43: 377380
PubMed | Scopus (18)

[272]Chen, M.S., Li, J.Q., Zheng, Y., Guo, R.P., Liang, H.H., Zhang, Y.Q. et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing percutaneous local ablative therapy and partial hepatectomy for small hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg. 2006; 243: 321328
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (425)

[273]Huang, J., Yan, L., Cheng, Z., Wu, H., Du, L., Wang, J. et al. A randomized trial comparing radiofrequency ablation and surgical resection for HCC conforming to the Milan criteria. Ann Surg. 2010; 252: 903912
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (85)

[274]Lu, D.S., Yu, N.C., Raman, S.S., Limanond, P., Lassman, C., Murray, K. et al. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: treatment success as defined by histologic examination of the explanted liver. Radiology. 2005; 234: 954960
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (139)

[275]Komorizono, Y., Oketani, M., Sako, K., Yamasaki, N., Shibatou, T., Maeda, M. et al. Risk factors for local recurrence of small hepatocellular carcinoma tumors after a single session, single application of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. Cancer. 2003; 97: 12531262
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (152)

[276]Llovet, J.M., Vilana, R., Br, C., Bianchi, L., Salmeron, J.M., Boix, L. et al. Increased risk of tumor seeding after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for single hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 11241129
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (466)

[277]Teratani, T., Yoshida, H., Shiina, S., Teratani, T., Obi, S., Yamashiki, N. et al. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma in so-called high-risk locations. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 11011108
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (95)

[278]Yu, N.C., Lu, D.S., Raman, S.S., Dupuy, D.E., Simon, C.J., Lassman, C. et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma: microwave ablation with multiple straight and loop antenna clusters pilot comparison with pathologic findings. Radiology. 2006; 239: 269275
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (49)

[279]Shibata, T., Iimuro, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Maetani, Y., Ametani, F., Itoh, K. et al. Small hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of radio-frequency ablation and percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy. Radiology. 2002; 223: 331337
CrossRef | PubMed

[280]Pacella, C.M., Francica, G., Di Lascio, F.M., Arienti, V., Antico, E., Caspani, B. et al. Long-term outcome of cirrhotic patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 26152621
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (22)

[281]Orlacchio, A., Bazzocchi, G., Pastorelli, D., Bolacchi, F., Angelico, M., Almerighi, C. et al. Percutaneous cryoablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma with US guidance and CT monitoring: initial experience. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2008; 31: 587594
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (26)

[282]Guo, Y., Zhang, Y., Klein, R., Nijm, G.M., Sahakian, A.V., Omary, R.A. et al. Irreversible electroporation therapy in the liver: longitudinal efficacy studies in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2010; 70: 15551563
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[283]Ng, K.K., Poon, R.T., Chan, S.C., Chok, K.S., Cheung, T.T., Tung, H. et al. High-intensity focused ultrasound for hepatocellular carcinoma: a single-center experience. Ann Surg. 2011; 253: 981987
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (20)

[284]Wang, S., Keltner, L., Winship, J., and Lee, W. A phase 1/2 safety and efficacy study of intratumoral light-activated drug therapy using talaporfin sodium in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27A

[285]Bruix, J., Sala, M., and Llovet, J.M. Chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S179S188
PubMed | Scopus (257)

[286]Brown, D.B., Gould, J.E., Gervais, D.A., Goldberg, S.N., Murthy, R., Millward, S.F. et al. Society of Interventional Radiology Technology Assessment Committee and the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation. Image-guided tumor ablation: standardization of terminology and reporting criteria. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009; 20: S377S390
PubMed | Scopus (13)

[287]Lin, D.Y., Liaw, Y.F., Lee, T.Y., and Lai, C.M. Hepatic arterial embolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 1988; 94: 453456
PubMed

[288]Pelletier, G., Roche, A., Ink, O., Anciaux, M.L., Derhy, S., Rougier, P. et al. A randomized trial of hepatic arterial chemoembolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 1990; 11: 181184
PubMed | Scopus (314)

[289]Group dEtude et de Traitment du Carcinome Hpatocellulaire. A comparison of lipiodol chemoembolization and conservative treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 12561261
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (687)

[290]Bruix, J., Llovet, J.M., Castells, A., Montana, X., Bru, C., Ayuso, M.C. et al. Transarterial embolization versus symptomatic treatment in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a randomized, controlled trial in a single institution. Hepatology. 1998; 27: 15781583
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (384)

[291]Pelletier, G., Ducreux, M., Gay, F., Luboinski, M., Hagege, H., Dao, T. et al. Treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with lipiodol chemoembolization: a multicenter randomized trial. J Hepatol. 1998; 29: 129134
PubMed | Scopus (310)

[292]Lo, C.M., Ngan, H., Tso, W.K., Liu, C.L., Lam, C.M., Poon, R.T. et al. Randomized controlled trial of transarterial lipiodol chemoembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2002; 35: 11641171
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1002)

[293]Llovet, J.M., Real, M.I., Montana, X., Planas, R., Coll, S., Aponte, J. et al. Arterial embolisation or chemoembolisation versus symptomatic treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002; 359: 17341739
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (1263)

[294]Oliveri, R.S., Wetterslev, J., and Gluud, C. Transarterial (chemo)embolisation for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; 3: CD004787DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004787.pub
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004787.pub | CrossRef | PubMed

[295]Lammer, J., Malagari, K., Vogl, T., Pilleul, F., Denys, A., Watkinson, A. et al. Prospective randomised study of doxorubicin-eluting-bead embolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: results of the PRECISION V study. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010; 33: 4152
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (247)

[296]Raoul, J.L., Guyader, D., Bretagne, J.F., Heautot, J.F., Duvauferrier, R., Bourguet, P. et al. Prospective randomized trial of chemoembolization versus intra-arterial injection of 131I-labeled-iodized oil in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 1997; 26: 11561161
PubMed

[297]Salem, R., Lewandowski, R.J., Mulcahy, M.F., Riaz, A., Ryu, R.K., Ibrahim, S. et al. Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma using Yttrium-90 microspheres: a comprehensive report of long-term outcomes. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 5264
PubMed | Scopus (171)

[298]Kulik, L.M., Carr, B.I., Mulcahy, M.F., Lewandowski, R.J., Atassi, B., Ryu, R.K. et al. Safety and efficacy of 90Y radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with and without portal vein thrombosis. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 7181
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (160)

[299]Hilgard, P., Hamami, M., Fouly, A.E., Scherag, A., Mller, S., Ertle, J. et al. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 glass microspheres in hepatocellular carcinoma: European experience on safety and long-term survival. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 17411749
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (56)

[300]Sangro, B., Bilbao, J.I., Iarrairaegui, M., Rodriguez, M., Garrastachu, P., and Martinez-Cuesta, A. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Dig Dis. 2009; 27: 164169
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[301]Cheng, J.C., Wu, J.K., Huang, C.M., Huang, D.Y., Cheng, S.H., Lin, Y.M. et al. Radiation-induced liver disease after radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical manifestation and dosimetric description. Radiother Oncol. 2002; 63: 4145
PubMed | Scopus (46)

[302]Ben-Josef, E., Normolle, D., Ensminger, W.D., Walker, S., Tatro, D., Ten Haken, R.K. et al. Phase II trial of high-dose conformal radiation therapy with concurrent hepatic artery floxuridine for unresectable intrahepatic malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 87398747
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (118)

[303]Sridhara, R., Johnson, J.R., Justice, R., Keegan, P., Chakravarty, A., and Pazdur, R. Review of oncology and hematology drug product approvals at the US Food and Drug Administration between July 2005 and December 2007. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010; 102: 230243
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (26)

[304]Farazi, P.A. and DePinho, R.A. Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: from genes to environment. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006; 6: 674687
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (592)

[305]Villanueva, A., Newell, P., Chiang, D.Y., Friedman, S.L., and Llovet, J.M. Genomics and signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 2007; 27: 5576
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (229)

[306]Roberts, L.R. and Gores, G.J. Hepatocellular carcinoma: molecular pathways and new therapeutic targets. Semin Liver Dis. 2005; 25: 212225
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (152)

[307]Semela, D. and Dufour, J.F. Angiogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2004; 41: 864880
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (141)

[308]Ito, Y., Takeda, T., Sakon, M., Tsujimoto, M., Higashiyama, S., Noda, K. et al. Expression and clinical significance of erb-B receptor family in hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2001; 84: 13771383
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (119)

[309]Calvisi, D.F., Ladu, S., Gorden, A., Farina, M., Conner, E.A., Lee, J.S. et al. Ubiquitous activation of Ras and Jak/Stat pathways in human HCC. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 11171128
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (228)

[310]Robinson, D.R., Wu, Y.M., and Lin, S.F. The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome. Oncogene. 2000; 19: 55485557
CrossRef | PubMed

[311]Wilhelm, S.M., Adnane, L., Newell, P., Villanueva, A., Llovet, J.M., and Lynch, M. Preclinical overview of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that targets both Raf and VEGF and PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008; 7: 31293140
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (326)

[312]Villanueva, A., Chiang, D.Y., Newell, P., Peix, J., Thung, S., Alsinet, C. et al. Pivotal role of mTOR signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135: 19721983
PubMed | Scopus (196)

[313]Sahin, F., Kannangai, R., Adegbola, O., Wang, J., Su, G., and Torbenson, M. MTOR and P70 S6 kinase expression in primary liver neoplasms. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 84218425
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (174)

[314]Takami, T., Kaposi-Novak, P., Uchida, K., Gomez-Quiroz, L.E., Conner, E.A., Factor, V.M. et al. Loss of hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway accelerates early stages of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 98449851
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (39)

[315]Breuhahn, K., Longerich, T., and Schirmacher, P. Dysregulation of growth factor signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene. 2006; 25: 37873800
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (189)

[316]Tovar, V., Alsinet, C., Villanueva, A., Hoshida, Y., Chiang, D.Y., Sole, M. et al. IGF activation in a molecular subclass of hepatocellular carcinoma and pre-clinical efficacy of IGF-1R blockage. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 550559
PubMed | Scopus (57)

[317]De La Coste, A., Romagnolo, B., Billuart, P., Renard, C.A., Buendia, M.A., Soubrane, O. et al. Somatic mutations of the beta-catenin gene are frequent in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998; 95: 88478851
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (638)

[318]Zucman-Rossi, J., Benhamouche, S., Godard, C., Boyault, S., Grimber, G., Balabaud, C. et al. Differential effects of inactivated Axin1 and activated beta-catenin mutations in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncogene. 2007; 26: 774780
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (66)

[319]Colnot, S., Decaens, T., Niwa-Kawakita, M., Godard, C., Hamard, G., Kahn, A. et al. Liver-targeted disruption of Apc in mice activates beta-catenin signaling and leads to hepatocellular carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 101: 1721617221
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (120)

[320]Toffanin, S., Hoshida, Y., Lachenmayer, A., Villanueva, A., Cabellos, L., Minguez, B. et al. MicroRNA-based classification of hepatocellular carcinoma and oncogenic role of miR-517a. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 16181628
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (55)

[321]Villanueva, A. and Llovet, J.M. Targeted therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 14101426
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (101)

[322]Abou-Alfa, G.K., Schwartz, L., Ricci, S., Amadori, D., Santoro, A., Figer, A. et al. Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 42934300
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (651)

[323]Cheng, A.L., Kang, Y.K., Chen, Z., Tsao, C.J., Qin, S., Kim, J.S. et al. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009; 10: 2534
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (896)

[324]Kim, J.E., Ryoo, B.Y., Ryu, M.H., Chang, H.M., Suh, D.J., Lee, H.C. et al. Sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma according to ChildPugh class of liver function. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011; 68: 12851290
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[325]Hollebecque, A., Cattan, S., Romano, O., Sergent, G., Mourad, A., Louvet, A. et al. Safety and efficacy of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: the impact of the ChildPugh score. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 34: 11931201
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (16)

[326]Dufour, J.F., Hoppe, H., Heim, M.H., Helbling, B., Maurhofer, O., Szucs-Farkas, Z. et al. Continuous administration of sorafenib in combination with transarterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a phase I study. Oncologist. 2010; 15: 11981220
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (30)

[327]Abou-Alfa, G.K., Johnson, P., Knox, J.J., Capanu, M., Davidenko, I., Lacava, J. et al. Doxorubicin plus sorafenib vs doxorubicin alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2010; 304: 21542160
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (91)

[328]Decaens, T., Luciani, A., Itti, E., Hulin, A., Hurtova, M., Laurent, A. et al. Pilot study of sirolimus in cirrhotic patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: S13

[329]Philip, P.A., Mahoney, M.R., Allmer, C., Thomas, J., Pitot, H.C., Kim, G. et al. Phase II study of erlotinib (OSI-774) in patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 66576663
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (289)

[330]Bekaii-Saab, T., Markowitz, J., Prescott, N., Sadee, W., Heerema, N., Wei, L. et al. A multi-institutional phase II study of the efficacy and tolerability of lapatinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15: 58955901
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (41)

[331]Faivre, S., Raymond, E., Boucher, E., Douillard, J., Lim, H.Y., Kim, J.S. et al. Safety and efficacy of sunitinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase II study. Lancet Oncol. 2009; 10: 794800
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (118)

[332]Zhu, A.X., Sahani, D.V., Duda, D.G., di Tomaso, E., Ancukiewicz, M., Catalano, O.A. et al. Efficacy, safety, and potential biomarkers of sunitinib monotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 30273035
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (205)

[333]Koeberle, D., Montemurro, M., Samaras, P., Majno, P., Simcock, M., Limacher, A. et al. Continuous sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) and Swiss Association for the Study of the Liver (SASL) multicenter phase II trial (SAKK 77/06). Oncologist. 2010; 15: 285292
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (36)

[334]Cheng, A., Kang, Y., Lin, D., Park, J., Kudo, M., Qin, S. et al. Phase III trial of sunitinib (Su) versus sorafenib (So) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29 (Abstract 4000)

[335]Park, J.W., Finn, R.S., Kim, J.S., Karwal, M., Li, R.K., Ismail, F. et al. Phase II, open-label study of brivanib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17: 19731983
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (50)

[336]Siegel, A.B., Cohen, E.I., Ocean, A., Lehrer, D., Goldenberg, A., Knox, J.J. et al. Phase II trial evaluating the clinical and biologic effects of bevacizumab in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 29922998
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (196)

[337]Thomas, M.B., Morris, J.S., Chadha, R., Iwasaki, M., Kaur, H., Lin, E. et al. Phase II trial of the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients who have advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 843850
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (169)

[338]Zhu, A.X., Blaszkowsky, L.S., Ryan, D.P., Clark, J.W., Muzikansky, A., Horgan, K. et al. Phase II study of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in combination with bevacizumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 18981903
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (251)

[339]Spratlin, J.L., Cohen, R.B., Eadens, M., Gore, L., Camidge, D.R., Diab, S. et al. Phase I pharmacologic and biologic study of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 780787
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (99)

[340]Taieb, J., Barbare, J.C., and Rougier, P. Medical treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): whats next?. Ann Oncol. 2006; 10: 308314
CrossRef | Scopus (17)

[341]Gish, R.G., Porta, C., Lazar, L., Ruff, P., Feld, R., Croitoru, A. et al. Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated with nolatrexed or doxorubicin. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 30693075
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (78)

[342]Yeo, W., Mok, T.S., Zee, B., Leung, T.W., Lai, P.B., Lau, W.Y. et al. A randomized phase III study of doxorubicin versus cisplatin/interferon alpha-2b/doxorubicin/fluorouracil (PIAF) combination chemotherapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 15321538
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (256)

[343]Qin, S., Bai, Y., Ye, S., Fan, J., Lim, H., Cho, J.Y. et al. Phase III study of oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX4) versus doxorubicin as palliative systemic chemotherapy in advanced HCC in Asian patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 4008A

[344]Edeline, J., Raoul, J.L., Vauleon, E., Guillygomach, A., Boudjema, K., and Boucher, E. Systemic chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver: a retrospective study. World J Gastroenterol. 2009; 15: 713716
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (19)

[345]Barbare, J.C., Bouch, O., Bonnetain, F., Raoul, J.L., Rougier, P., Abergel, A. et al. Randomized controlled trial of tamoxifen in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 43384346
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (77)

[346]Chow, P.K., Tai, B.C., Tan, C.K., Machin, D., Win, K.M., Johnson, P.J. et al. Asian-Pacific Hepatocellular Carcinoma Trials Group. High-dose tamoxifen in the treatment of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 12211226
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (122)

[347]Grimaldi, C., Bleiberg, H., Gay, F., Messner, M., Rougier, P., and Kok, T.C. Evaluation of antiandrogen therapy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer multicentric double-blind trial. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 411417
PubMed

[348]Greten, T.F., Manns, M.P., and Korangy, F. Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2006; 45: 868878
PubMed | Scopus (25)

[349]Greten, T.F., Manns, M.P., and Korangy, F. Immunotherapy of HCC. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2008; 3: 3139
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (17)

[350]Beaugrand, M., Sala, M., Degos, F., Sherman, M., Bolondi, L., Evans, T. et al. Treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma by seocalcitol: an international randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in 747 patients. J Hepatol. 2003; 42: 17A

[351]Posey, J., Johnson, P., Mok, T., Hirmand, M., Dahlberg, S., Kwei, L. et al. Results of a phase 2/3 open-label, randomized trial of T138067 versus doxorubicin in chemotherapy-naive, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 316

[352]Cheng, B.Q., Jia, C.Q., Liu, C.T., Fan, W., Wang, Q.L., Zhang, Z.L. et al. Chemoembolization combined with radiofrequency ablation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 3 cm. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008; 299: 16691677
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (101)

[353]Miller, A.B., Hoogstraten, B., Staquet, M., and Winkler, A. Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer. 1981; 47: 207214
CrossRef | PubMed

[354]Therasse, P., Arbuck, S.G., Eisenhauer, E.A., Wanders, J., Kaplan, R.S., Rubinstein, L. et al. New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000; 92: 205216
CrossRef | PubMed

[355]Bogaerts, J., Ford, R., Sargent, D., Schwartz, L.H., Rubinstein, L., Lacombe, D. et al. RECIST Working Party. Individual patient data analysis to assess modifications to the RECIST criteria. Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45: 248260
PubMed | Scopus (45)

[356]Forner, A., Ayuso, C., Varela, M., Rimola, J., Hessheimer, A.J., de Lope, C.R. et al. Evaluation of tumor response after locoregional therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma: are response evaluation criteria in solid tumors reliable?. Cancer. 2009; 115: 616623
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (140)

[357]Gillmore, R., Stuart, S., Kirkwood, A., Hameeduddin, A., Woodward, N., Burroughs, A.K. et al. EASL and mRECIST responses are independent prognostic factors for survival in hepatocellular cancer patients treated with transarterial embolization. J Hepatol. 2011; 55: 13091316
PubMed | Scopus (37)

[358]Lambert, B., Sturm, E., Mertens, J., Oltenfreiter, R., Smeets, P., Troisi, R. et al. Intra-arterial treatment with (90)Y microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: 4 years experience at the Ghent University Hospital. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011; 38: 21172124
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (5)

[359]Iavarone, M., Cabibbo, G., Piscaglia, F., Zavaglia, C., Grieco, A., Villa, E. et al. Field-practice study of sorafenib therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective multicenter study in Italy. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 20552063
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (37)

[360]Edeline, J., Boucher, E., Rolland, Y., Vaulon, E., Pracht, M., Perrin, C. et al. Comparison of tumor response by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) and modified RECIST in patients treated with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2011; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26255
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26255 | CrossRef | Scopus (50)