EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines

References

[1]Lavanchy, D. The global burden of hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2009; 29: 7481
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (370)

[2]Shepard, C.W., Finelli, L., and Alter, M.J. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005; 5: 558567
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (1087)

[3]Esteban, J.I., Sauleda, S., and Quer, J. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Europe. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 148162
PubMed | Scopus (165)

[4]Kamal, S.M. and Nasser, I.A. Hepatitis C genotype 4: what we know and what we dont yet know. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 13711383
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (83)

[5]van de Laar, T.J.W., Matthews, G.V., Prins, M., and Danta, M. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an emerging sexually transmitted infection. AIDS. 2010; 24: 17991812
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (53)

[6]Simmonds, P., Bukh, J., Combet, C., Deleage, G., Enomoto, N., Feinstone, S. et al. Consensus proposals for a unified system of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 962973
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (694)

[7]Antaki, N., Craxi, A., Kamal, S., Moucari, R., Van der Merwe, S., Haffar, S. et al. The neglected hepatitis C virus genotypes 4, 5 and 6: an international consensus report. Liver Int. 2010; 30: 342355
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (53)

[8]Santantonio, T., Wiegand, J., and Gerlach, J.T. Acute hepatitis C: current status and remaining challenges. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 625633
PubMed | Scopus (51)

[9]Wiegand, J., Deterding, K., Cornberg, M., and Wedemeyer, H. Treatment of acute hepatitis C: the success of monotherapy with (pegylated) interferon alpha. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 62: 860865
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (24)

[10]Afdhal, N.H. The natural history of hepatitis C. Semin Liver Dis. 2004; 24: 38
CrossRef | PubMed

[11]Thompson, C.J., Rogers, G., Hewson, P., Wright, D., Anderson, R., Cramp, M. et al. Surveillance of cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and economic analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2007; 11: 1206

[12]Yang, J.D. and Roberts, L.R. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a global view. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 7: 448458
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (155)

[13]Bartosch, B., Thimme, R., Blum, H.E., and Zoulim, F. Hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2009; 51: 810820
PubMed | Scopus (39)

[14]Deuffic-Burban, S., Deltenre, P., Louvet, A., Canva, V., Dharancy, S., Hollebecque, A. et al. Impact of viral eradication on mortality related to hepatitis C: a modeling approach in France. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 175183
PubMed | Scopus (36)

[15]Deuffic-Burban, S., Babany, G., Lonjon-Domanec, I., Deltenre, P., Canva-Delcambre, V., Dharancy, S. et al. Impact of pegylated interferon and ribavirin on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal aminotransferases in France. Hepatology. 2009; 50: 13511359
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (17)

[16]Zignego, A.L. and Craxi, A. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Liver Dis. 2008; 12: 611636 (ix)
PubMed | Scopus (20)

[17]Chevaliez, S. and Pawlotsky, J.M. Diagnosis and management of chronic viral hepatitis: antigens, antibodies and viral genomes. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2008; 22: 10311048
PubMed | Scopus (14)

[18]Vermehren, J., Kau, A., Gartner, B.C., Gobel, R., Zeuzem, S., and Sarrazin, C. Differences between two real-time PCR-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) assays (RealTime HCV and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan) and one signal amplification assay (Versant HCV RNA 3.0) for RNA detection and quantification. J Clin Microbiol. 2008; 46: 38803891
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (40)

[19]Chevaliez, S., Bouvier-Alias, M., and Pawlotsky, J.M. Performance of the Abbott Real-Time PCR assay using m2000(sp) and m2000(rt) for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification. J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47: 17261732
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (23)

[20]Fytili, P., Tiemann, C., Wang, C., Schulz, S., Schaffer, S., Manns, M.P. et al. Frequency of very low HCV viremia detected by a highly sensitive HCV-RNA assay. J Clin Virol. 2007; 39: 308311
PubMed | Scopus (15)

[21]Chevaliez, S., Bouvier-Alias, M., Brillet, R., and Pawlotsky, J.M. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 subtype identification in new HCV drug development and future clinical practice. PLoS One. 2009; 4: e8209
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[22]Ishak, K., Baptista, A., Bianchi, L., Callea, F., De Groote, J., Gudat, F. et al. Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol. 1995; 22: 696699
PubMed | Scopus (2336)

[23]Desmet, V.J., Gerber, M., Hoofnagle, J.H., Manns, M., and Scheuer, P.J. Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging. Hepatology. 1994; 19: 15131520
CrossRef | PubMed

[24]Poynard, T., Ngo, Y., Munteanu, M., Thabut, D., Massard, J., Moussalli, J. et al. Biomarkers of liver injury for hepatitis clinical trials: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Antiviral Therapy. 2010; 15: 617631
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (18)

[25]Castera, L. Transient elastography and other noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16: 300314
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (61)

[26]Ge, D.L., Fellay, J., Thompson, A.J., Simon, J.S., Shianna, K.V., Urban, T.J. et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature. 2009; 461: 399401
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1431)

[27]Tanaka, Y., Nishida, N., Sugiyama, M., Kurosaki, M., Matsuura, K., Sakamoto, N. et al. Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nat Genet. 2009; 41: 11051109
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (932)

[28]Suppiah, V., Moldovan, M., Ahlenstiel, G., Berg, T., Weltman, M., Abate, M.L. et al. IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy. Nat Genet. 2009; 41: 11001174
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (832)

[29]Rauch, A., Kutalik, Z., Descombes, P., Cai, T., Di Iulio, J., Mueller, T. et al. Genetic variation in IL28B is associated with chronic hepatitis C and treatment failure: a genome-wide association study. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 13381345 (1345.e17)
PubMed | Scopus (491)

[30]Thomas, D.L., Thio, C.L., Martin, M.P., Qi, Y., Ge, D., OhUigin, C. et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2009; 461: 798801
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (772)

[31]Tillmann, H.L., Thompson, A.J., Patel, K., Wiese, M., Tenckhoff, H., Nischalke, H.D. et al. A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice. Gastroenterology. 2010; 139: 15861592
PubMed | Scopus (131)

[32]Ghany, M.G., Strader, D.B., Thomas, D.L., and Seeff, L.B. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 13351374
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1125)

[33]McCaughan, G.W. Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver consensus statements on the diagnosis, management and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 22: 615633
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (82)

[34]de Bruijne, J., Buster, E.H.C.J., Gelderblom, H.C., Brouwer, J.T., de Knegt, R.J., van Erpecum, K.J. et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection Dutch national guidelines. Netherlands J Med. 2008; 66: 311322
PubMed

[35]Italian Association for the study of the liver, Italian Society of infectious td, Italian Society for the study of sexually transmitted diseases. Practice guidelines for the treatment of hepatits C: recommendations from AISF/SIMIT/SIMAST. Dig Liver Dis 2010;42:8191.

[36]Sarrazin, C., Berg, T., Ross, R.S., Schirmacher, P., Wedemeyer, H., Neumann, U. et al. Prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: the German guidelines on the management of HCV infection. Z Gastroenterol. 2010; 48: 289351
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (62)

[37]McHutchison, J.G., Lawitz, E.J., Shiffman, M.L., Muir, A.J., Galler, G.W., McCone, J. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b or alfa-2a with ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C infection. New Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 580593
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (552)

[38]Rumi, M.G., Aghemo, A., Prati, G.M., DAmbrosio, R., Donato, M.F., Soffredini, R. et al. Randomized study of peginterferon-alpha 2a plus ribavirin vs peginterferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 108115
PubMed | Scopus (107)

[39]Ascione, A., De Luca, M., Tartaglione, M.T., Lampasi, F., Di Costanzo, G.G., Lanza, A.G. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin is more effective than peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 116122
PubMed | Scopus (92)

[40]Shiffman, M.L. Treatment of hepatitis C in 2011: what can we expect?. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2010; 12: 7075
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (12)

[41]Bacon, B.R., Gordon, S.C., Lawitz, E., Marcellin, P., Vierling, J.M., Zeuzem, S. et al. HCV RESPOND-2 final results: high sustained virologic response among genotype1 previous nonresponders and relapsers to peginterferon/ribavirin when retreated with boceprevir plus PegIntron/ribavirin. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 430A
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (29)

[42]Jacobson, I.M., McHutchison, J.G., Dusheiko, G.M., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Reddy, R., Bzowej, N.H. et al. Telaprevir in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin in genotype 1 HCV treatment-naive patients: final results of Phase 3 ADVANCE study. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 427A

[43]Poordad, F., McCone, J., Bacon, B.R., Bruno, S., Manns, M.P., Sulkowski, M.S. et al. Boceprevir (BOC) combined with peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin (P/R) for treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C (HCV) genotype 1: SPRINT-2 final results. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 402A
CrossRef | Scopus (18)

[44]Sherman, K.E., Flamm, S.L., Afdhal, N.H., Nelson, D.R., Sulkowski, M.S., Everson, G.T. et al. Telaprevir in combination with peginterferon alfa2b and ribavirin for 24 or 48 weeks in treatment-naive genotype 1 HCV patients who achieved an extended rapid viral response: final results of Phase 3 ILLUMINATE study. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 401A
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (4)

[45]Torresi, J., Johnson, D., and Wedemeyer, H. Progress in the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines for hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol. 2011;
PubMed

[46]Kubitschke, A., Bahr, M.J., Aslan, N., Bader, C., Tillmann, H.L., Sarrazin, C. et al. Induction of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells by needle stick injury in the absence of HCV-viraemia. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007; 37: 5464
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (23)

[47]Deterding, K., Wiegand, J., Gruner, N., and Wedemeyer, H. Medical procedures as a risk factor for HCV infection in developed countries: do we neglect a significant problem in medical care?. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 10191020
PubMed | Scopus (16)

[48]Martinez-Bauer, E., Forns, X., Armelles, M., Planas, R., Sola, R., Vegara, M. et al. Hospital admission is a relevant source of hepatitis C virus acquisition in Spain. J. Hepatol. 2008; : 48

[49]Helbling, B., Renner, E.L., and Kammerlander, R. Acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131: 314
CrossRef | PubMed

[50]Hasle, G., Hoel, T., and Jensenius, M. Mortality of hepatitis A in adults with hepatitis C antibodies. Lancet. 1998; 351: 1888
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed

[51]Deterding, K., Tegtmeyer, B., Cornberg, M., Hadem, J., Potthoff, A., Boker, K.H. et al. Hepatitis A virus infection suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and may lead to clearance of HCV. J Hepatol. 2006; 45: 770778
PubMed | Scopus (23)

[52]Sagnelli, E., Coppola, N., Pisaturo, M., Masiello, A., Tonziello, G., Sagnelli, C. et al. HBV superinfection in HCV chronic carriers: a disease that is frequently severe but associated with the eradication of HCV. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 10901097
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (25)

[53]Vento, S., Garofano, T., Renzini, C., Cainelli, F., Casali, F., Ghironzi, G. et al. Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338: 286290
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (485)

[54]Effects of mode of delivery and infant feeding on the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus. European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. BJOG 2001;108:3717.

[55]Fried, M.W., Shiffman, M.L., Reddy, K.R., Smith, C., Marinos, G., Goncales, F.L. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. New Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 975982
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (4287)

[56]Hadziyannis, S.J., Sette, H., Morgan, T.R., Balan, V., Diago, M., Marcellin, P. et al. Peginterferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 140: 346355
CrossRef | PubMed

[57]Manns, M.P., Wedemeyer, H., and Cornberg, M. Treating viral hepatitis C: efficacy, side effects, and complications. Gut. 2006; 55: 13501359
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (270)

[58]Awad, T., Thorlund, K., Hauser, G., Stimac, D., Mabrouk, M., and Gluud, C. Proceed with caution peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alfa-2b in chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review of randomized trials reply. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 22412242
CrossRef | Scopus (1)

[59]Manns, M., Zeuzem, S., Sood, A., Lurie, Y., Cornberg, M., Klinker, H. et al. Reduced dose and duration of peginterferon alfa-2b and weight-based ribavirin in patients with genotype 2 and 3 chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2011;

[60]Sarrazin, C., Susser, S., Doehring, A., Lange, C.M., Muller, T., Schlecker, C. et al. Importance of IL28B gene polymorphisms in hepatitis C virus genotype 2 and 3 infected patients. J Hepatol. 2011; 54: 415421
PubMed | Scopus (90)

[61]Poynard, T., Colombo, M., Bruix, J., Schiff, E., Terg, R., Flamm, S. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin: effective in patients with hepatitis C who failed interferon alfa/ribavirin therapy. Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 16181628
PubMed | Scopus (135)

[62]Jensen, D.M., Marcellin, P., Freilich, B., Andreone, P., Di Bisceglie, A., Brandao-Mello, C.E. et al. Re-treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C who do not respond to peginterferon-alpha 2b a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 150: W97W528
CrossRef

[63]Bedossa, P. Liver biopsy. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2008; 32: 47
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (9)

[64]Rousselet, M.C., Michalak, S., Dupre, F., Croue, A., Bedossa, P., Saint-Andre, J.P. et al. Sources of variability in histological scoring of chronic viral hepatitis. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 257264
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (211)

[65]Friedrich-Rust, M., Ong, M.F., Martens, S., Sarrazin, C., Bojunga, J., Zeuzem, S. et al. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 960974
PubMed | Scopus (408)

[66]Castera, L., Forns, X., and Alberti, A. Non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis using transient elastography. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 835847
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (293)

[67]Sebastiani, G., Halfon, P., Castera, L., Pol, S., Thomas, D.L., Mangia, A. et al. SAFE biopsy: a validated method for large-scale staging of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 18211827
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (64)

[68]Shaheen, A.A. and Myers, R.P. Diagnostic accuracy of the APRI for the prediction of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: a systematic review. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 833A
CrossRef | Scopus (162)

[69]Degos, F., Perez, P., Roche, B., Mahmoudi, A., Asselineau, J., Voitot, H. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of FibroScan and comparison to liver fibrosis biomarkers in chronic viral hepatitis: a multicenter prospective study (the FIBROSTIC study). J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 10131021
PubMed | Scopus (67)

[70]Parkes, J., Guha, I.N., Roderick, P., Harris, S., Cross, R., Manos, M.M. et al. Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test accurately identifies liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2011; 18: 2331
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (20)

[71]Parkes, J., Roderick, P., Harris, S., Day, C., Mutimer, D., Collier, J. et al. Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) Test can predict clinical outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. Gut. 2010; 59: 12451251
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (50)

[72]Castera, L., Sebastiani, G., Le Bail, B., de Ldinghen, V., Couzigou, P., and Alberti, A. Prospective comparison of two algorithms combining non-invasive methods for staging liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 191198
PubMed | Scopus (61)

[73]Mangia, A., Dalgard, O., Minerva, N., Verbaan, H., Bacca, D., Ring-Larsen, H. et al. Ribavirin dosage in patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3 who completed short therapy with peg-interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 31: 13461353
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (9)

[74]Sarrazin, C., Shiffman, M.L., Hadziyannis, S.J., Lin, A., Colucci, G., Ishida, H. et al. Definition of rapid virologic response with a highly sensitive real-time PCR-based HCV RNA assay in peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin response-guided therapy. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 832838
PubMed | Scopus (26)

[75]Wright, M., Grieve, R., Roberts, J., Main, J., and Thomas, H.C. Health benefits of antiviral therapy for mild chronic hepatitis C: randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2006; 10: 1113

[76]Grieve, R., Roberts, J., Wright, M., Sweeting, M., DeAngelis, D., Rosenberg, W. et al. Cost effectiveness of interferon or peginterferon with ribavirin for histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. Gut. 2006; 55: 13321338
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (46)

[77]Sroczynski, G., Esteban, E., Conrads-Frank, A., Schwarzer, R., Muhlberger, N., Wright, D. et al. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatment in hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2010; 17: 3450
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (25)

[78]Manns, M.P., McHutchison, J.G., Gordon, S.C., Rustgi, V.K., Shiffman, M., Reindollar, R. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001; 358: 958965
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (4482)

[79]George, S.L., Bacon, B.R., Brunt, E.M., Mihindukulasuriya, K.L., Hoffmann, J., and Di Bisceglie, A.M. Clinical, virologic, histologic, and biochemical outcomes after successful HCV therapy: a 5-year follow-up of 150 patients. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 729738
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (96)

[80]Chevaliez, S., Bouvier-Alias, M., Brillet, R., and Pawlotsky, J.M. Overestimation and underestimation of hepatitis C virus RNA levels in a widely used real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 2231
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (66)

[81]Diago, M., Shiffman, M.L., Bronowicki, J.P., Zeuzem, S., Rodriguez-Torres, M., Pappas, S.C. et al. Identifying hepatitis C virus genotype 2/3 patients who can receive a 16-week abbreviated course of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) plus ribavirin. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 18971903
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (27)

[82]Shiffman, M.L., Suter, F., Bacon, B.R., Nelson, D., Harley, H., Sola, R. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 16 or 24 weeks in HCV genotype 2 or 3. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 124134
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (327)

[83]Jensen, D.M., Morgan, T.R., Marcellin, P., Pockros, P.J., Reddy, K.R., Hadziyannis, S.J. et al. Early identification of HCV genotype 1 patients responding to 24 weeks peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kD)/ribavirin therapy. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 954960
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (348)

[84]Ferenci, P., Laferl, H., Scherzer, T.M., Gschwantler, M., Maieron, A., Brunner, H. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 24 weeks in hepatitis C type 1 and 4 patients with rapid virological response. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135: 451458
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (149)

[85]Zeuzem, S., Buti, M., Ferenci, P., Sperl, J., Horsmans, Y., Cianciara, J. et al. Efficacy of 24 weeks treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C infected with genotype 1 and low pretreatment viremia. J Hepatol. 2006; 44: 97103
PubMed | Scopus (361)

[86]Fried, M.W. Side effects of therapy of hepatitis C and their management. Hepatology. 2002; 36: S237S244
CrossRef | PubMed

[87]Soza, A., Everhart, J.E., Ghany, M.G., Doo, E., Heller, T., Promrat, K. et al. Neutropenia during combination therapy of interferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 12731279
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (133)

[88]Shiffman, M.L., Salvatore, J., Hubbard, S., Price, A., Sterling, R.K., Stravitz, R.T. et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 with peginterferon, ribavirin, and epoetin alpha. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 371379
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (148)

[89]Afdhal, N.H., Dieterich, D.T., Pockros, P.J., Schiff, E.R., Shiffman, M.L., Sulkowski, M.S. et al. Epoetin alfa maintains ribavirin dose in HCV-infected patients: a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 13021311
PubMed | Scopus (244)

[90]Pockros, P.J., Shiffman, M.L., Schiff, E.R., Sulkowski, M.S., Younossi, Z., Dieterich, D.T. et al. Epoetin alfa improves quality of life in anemic HCV-infected patients receiving combination therapy. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 14501458
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (111)

[91]Berg, T., Sarrazin, C., Herrmann, E., Hinrichsen, H., Gerlach, T., Zachoval, R. et al. Prediction of treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C: significance of baseline parameters and viral dynamics during therapy. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 600609
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (204)

[92]Davis, G.L., Wong, J.B., McHutchison, J.G., Manns, M.P., Harvey, J., and Albrecht, J. Early virologic response to treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2003; 38: 645652
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (673)

[93]Mangia, A., Minerva, N., Bacca, D., Cozzolongo, R., Ricci, G.L., Carretta, V. et al. Individualized treatment duration for hepatitis C genotype 1 patients: a randomized controlled trial. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 4350
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (170)

[94]Moreno, C., Deltenre, P., Pawlotsky, J.M., Henrion, J., Adler, M., and Mathurin, P. Shortened treatment duration in treatment-naive genotype 1 HCV patients with rapid virological response: a meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 2531
PubMed | Scopus (32)

[95]Berg, T., von Wagner, M., Nasser, S., Sarrazin, C., Heintges, T., Gerlach, T. et al. Extended treatment duration for hepatitis C virus type 1: comparing 48 versus 72 weeks of peginterferon-alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 10861097
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (387)

[96]Pearlman, B.L., Ehleben, C., and Saifee, S. Treatment extension to 72 weeks of peginterferon and ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1-infected slow responders. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 16881694
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (172)

[97]Sanchez-Tapias, J.M., Diago, M., Escartin, P., Enriquez, J., Romero-Gomez, M., Barcena, R. et al. Peginterferon-alfa2a plus ribavirin for 48 versus 72 weeks in patients with detectable hepatitis C virus RNA at week 4 of treatment. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 451460
PubMed | Scopus (291)

[98]Ferenci, P., Laferl, H., Scherzer, T.M., Maieron, A., Hofer, H., Stauber, R. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin for 48 or 72 weeks in hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4 patients with slow virologic response. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 503512
PubMed | Scopus (62)

[99]Buti, M., Lurie, Y., Zakharova, N.G., Blokhina, N.P., Horban, A., Teuber, G. et al. Randomized trial of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for 48 or 72 weeks in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and slow virologic response. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 12011207
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (38)

[100]Farnik, H., Lange, C.M., Sarrazin, C., Kronenberger, B., Zeuzem, S., and Herrmann, E. Meta-analysis shows extended therapy improves response of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 8: 884890
PubMed | Scopus (22)

[101]Dalgard, O., Bjoro, K., Ring-Larsen, H., Bjornsson, E., Holberg-Petersen, M., Skovlund, E. et al. Pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 14 versus 24 weeks in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 and rapid virological response. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 3542
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (134)

[102]Mangia, A., Santoro, R., Minerva, N., Ricci, G.L., Carretta, V., Persico, M. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for 12 vs. 24 weeks in HCV genotype 2 or 3. New Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 26092617
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (462)

[103]von Wagner, M., Huber, M., Berg, T., Hinrichsen, H., Rasenack, J., Heintges, T. et al. Peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kDa) and ribavirin for 16 or 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 or 3 chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2005; 129: 522527
PubMed

[104]Yu, M.L., Dai, C.Y., Huang, J.F., Hou, N.J., Lee, L.P., Hsieh, M.Y. et al. A randomised study of peginterferon and ribavirin for 16 versus 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 chronic hepatitis C. Gut. 2007; 56: 553559
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (179)

[105]Kau, A., Vermehren, J., and Sarrazin, C. Treatment predictors of a sustained virologic response in hepatitis B and C. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 634651
PubMed | Scopus (159)

[106]Romero-Gomez, M., Fernandez-Rodriguez, C.M., Andrade, R.J., Diago, M., Alonso, S., Planas, R. et al. Effect of sustained virological response to treatment on the incidence of abnormal glucose values in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 721727
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (77)

[107]Zeuzem, S., Hultcrantz, R., Bourliere, M., Goeser, T., Marcellin, P., Sanchez-Tapias, J. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C in previously untreated patients infected with HCV genotypes 2 or 3. J Hepatol. 2004; 40: 993999
PubMed

[108]Lam, K.D., Trinh, H.N., Do, S.T., Nguyen, T.T., Garcia, R.T., Nguyen, T. et al. Randomized controlled trial of pegylated interferon-alfa 2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C genotype 6. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 15731580
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (15)

[109]Zhou, Y.Q., Wang, X.H., Hong, G.H., Zhu, Y., Zhang, X.Q., Hu, Y.J. et al. Twenty-four weeks of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin effectively treat patients with HCV genotype 6a. J Viral Hepat. 2010; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01373
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01373 | CrossRef

[110]McHutchison, J.G., Manns, M., Patel, K., Poynard, T., Lindsay, K.L., Trepo, C. et al. Adherence to combination therapy enhances sustained response in genotype-1-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 10611069
PubMed | Scopus (738)

[111]Mauss, S., Berger, F., Goelz, J., Jacob, B., and Schmutz, G. A prospective controlled study of interferon-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C in patients on methadone maintenance. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 120124
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (132)

[112]Schaefer, M., Hinzpeter, A., Mohmand, A., Janssen, G., Pich, M., Schwaiger, M. et al. Hepatitis C treatment in difficult-to-treat psychiatric patients with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin: response and psychiatric side effects. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 991998
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (91)

[113]Schaefer, M., Schmidt, F., Folwaczny, C., Lorenz, R., Martin, G., Schindlbeck, N. et al. Adherence and mental side effects during hepatitis C treatment with interferon alfa and ribavirin in psychiatric risk groups. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 443451
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (264)

[114]Bressler, B.L., Guindi, M., Tomlinson, G., and Heathcote, J. High body mass index is an independent risk factor for nonresponse to antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2003; 38: 639644
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (261)

[115]Anand, B.S., Currie, S., Dieperink, E., Bin, E.J., Shen, H., Ho, S.B. et al. Alcohol use and treatment of hepatitis C virus: results of a national multicenter study. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 16071616
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (72)

[116]Romero-Gomez, M., Viloria, M.D., Andrade, R.J., Salmeron, J., Diago, M., Fernandez-Rodriguez, C.M. et al. Insulin resistance impairs sustained response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Gastroenterology. 2005; 128: 636641
PubMed | Scopus (477)

[117]Thevenot, T., Cadranel, J.F., Di Martino, V., Pariente, A., Causse, X., Renou, C. et al. A national French survey on the use of growth factors as adjuvant treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 377383
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (22)

[118]McHutchison, J.G., Dusheiko, G., Shiffman, M.L., Rodriguez-Torres, M., Sigal, S., Bourliere, M. et al. Eltrombopag for thrombocytopenia in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis C. New Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 22272236
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (210)

[119]Afdhal, N., Giannini, E., Tayyab, G.N., Mohsin, A., Lee, J.W., Andriulli, A. et al. Eltrombopag in chronic liver disease patients with thrombocytopenia undergoing an elective invasive procedure: results from elevate, a randomised clinical trial. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: S460

[120]Bezemer, G., Van Gool, A.R., Drenth, J.P., Hansen, B.E., Fortuyn, H.A.D., Weegink, C.J. et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial with escitalopram to prevent psychiatric adverse events during treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis c: the prevention of psychiatric side effects (Pops)-study. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 1139A

[121]Schaefer, M. and Mauss, S. Hepatitis C treatment in patients with drug addiction: clinical management of interferon-alpha-associated psychiatric side effects. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2008; 1: 177187
CrossRef | PubMed

[122]Zeuzem, S., Berg, T., Moeller, B., Hinrichsen, H., Mauss, S., Wedemeyer, H. et al. Expert opinion on the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16: 7590
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (105)

[123]Di Bisceglie, A.M., Shiffman, M.L., Everson, G.T., Lindsay, K.L., Everhart, J.E., Wright, E.C. et al. Prolonged therapy of advanced chronic hepatitis C with low-dose peginterferon. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 24292441
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (237)

[124]Lok, A.S., Everhart, J.E., Wright, E.C., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Kim, H.Y., Sterling, R.K. et al. Maintenance peginterferon therapy and other factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with advanced hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2010;

[125]Schmid, M., Kreil, A., Jessner, W., Homoncik, M., Datz, C., Gangl, A. et al. Suppression of haematopoiesis during therapy of chronic hepatitis C with different interferon alpha mono and combination therapy regimens. Gut. 2005; 54: 10141020
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (34)

[126]Garcia-Retortillo, M., Forns, X., Feliu, A., Moitinho, E., Costa, J., Navasa, M. et al. Hepatitis C virus kinetics during and immediately after liver transplantation. Hepatology. 2002; 35: 680687
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (255)

[127]Forns, X., Garcia-Retortillo, M., Serrano, T., Feliu, A., Suarez, F., de la Mata, M. et al. Antiviral therapy of patients with decompensated cirrhosis to prevent recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation. J Hepatol. 2003; 39: 389396
PubMed | Scopus (193)

[128]Everson, G., Trouillot, T., Trotter, J., Halprin, A., McKinley, C., and Fey, B. Treatment of decompensated cirrhotics with a low accelerating dose regimen (LADR) of interferon-alfa-2b plus ribavirin: safety and efficacy. Hepatology. 2001; 32: 595

[129]Carrion, J.A., Martinez-Bauer, E., Crespo, G., Ramirez, S., Perez-del-Pulgar, S., Garcia-Valdecasas, J.C. et al. Antiviral therapy increases the risk of bacterial infections in HCV-infected cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation: a retrospective study. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 719728
PubMed | Scopus (65)

[130]Prieto, M., Berenguer, M., Rayon, J.M., Cordoba, J., Arguello, L., Carrasco, D. et al. High incidence of allograft cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection following transplantation: relationship with rejection episodes. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 250256
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (362)

[131]Forman, L.M., Lewis, J.D., Berlin, J.A., Feldman, H.I., and Lucey, M.R. The association between hepatitis C infection and survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2002; 122: 889896
PubMed

[132]Berenguer, M., Palau, A., Aguilera, V., Rayon, J.M., Juan, F.S., and Prieto, M. Clinical benefits of antiviral therapy in patients with recurrent hepatitis C following liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2008; 8: 679687
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (90)

[133]Neumann, U.P., Berg, T., Bahra, M., Seehofer, D., Langrehr, J.M., Neuhaus, R. et al. Fibrosis progression after liver transplantation in patients with recurrent hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2004; 41: 830836
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (186)

[134]Blasco, A., Forns, X., Carrion, J.A., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Gilbert, R., Rimola, A. et al. Hepatic venous pressure gradient identifies patients at risk of severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 492499
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (123)

[135]Samuel, D., Bizollon, T., Feray, C., Roche, B., Ahmed, S.N.S., Lemonnier, C. et al. Interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a randomized study. Gastroenterology. 2003; 124: 642650
PubMed | Scopus (263)

[136]Carrion, J.A., Navasa, M., Garcia-Retortillo, M., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Crespo, G., Bruguera, M. et al. Efficacy of antiviral therapy on hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: a randomized controlled study. Gastroenterology. 2007; 132: 17461756
PubMed | Scopus (173)

[137]Qurishi, N., Kreuzberg, C., Luchters, G., Effenberger, W., Kupfer, B., Sauerbruch, T. et al. Effect of antiretroviral therapy on liver-related mortality in patients with HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection. Lancet. 2003; 362: 17081713
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (318)

[138]Sulkowski, M.S. Viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 353367
PubMed | Scopus (112)

[139]Alberti, A., Clumeck, N., Collins, S., Gerlich, W., Lundgren, J., Palu, G. et al. Short statement of the first European consensus conference on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in HIV co-infected patients. J Hepatol. 2005; 42: 615624
PubMed | Scopus (223)

[140]Potthoff, A., Manns, M.P., and Wedemeyer, H. Treatment of HBV/HCV coinfection. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010; 11: 919928
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (13)

[141]Potthoff, A., Wedemeyer, H., Boecher, W.O., Berg, T., Zeuzem, S., Arnold, J. et al. The HEP-NET B/C co-infection trial: a prospective multicenter study to investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin in patients with HBV/HCV co-infection. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 688694
PubMed | Scopus (27)

[142]Potthoff, A., Berg, T., and Wedemeyer, H. Late hepatitis B virus relapse in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus after antiviral treatment with pegylated interferon-a2b and ribavirin. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44: 14871490
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (7)

[143]Peck-Radosavljevic, M., Boletis, J., Besisik, F., Ferraz, M.L., Alric, L., Samuel, D. et al. Low-dose peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) is safe and produces a SVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C and end-stage renal disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 9: 242248
PubMed | Scopus (12)

[144]Potthoff, A., Wiegand, J., Luth, J.B., Wedemeyer, H., Manns, M.P., and Tillmann, H.L. Superiority of standard interferon-alpha2b compared to pegylated interferon-alpha2b (12 kDa) in a hemodialysis patient with chronic hepatitis C?. Clin Nephrol. 2005; 63: 232235
PubMed

[145]Fabrizi, F., Dixit, V., Martin, P., and Messa, P. Combined antiviral therapy of hepatitis C virus in dialysis patients: meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Viral Hepat. 2010; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01405.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01405.x | CrossRef | Scopus (9)

[146]Gane, E. and Pilmore, H. Management of chronic viral hepatitis before and after renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2002; 74: 427437
CrossRef | PubMed

[147]Martin, P. and Fabrizi, F. Hepatitis C virus and kidney disease. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 613624
PubMed | Scopus (31)

[148]Orens, J.B., Estenne, M., Arcasoy, S., Conte, J.V., Corris, P., Egan, J.J. et al. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2006 update a consensus report from the pulmonary scientific council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006; 25: 745755
PubMed | Scopus (419)

[149]Safdar, K. and Schiff, E.R. Alcohol and hepatitis C. Semin Liver Dis. 2004; 24: 305315
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (63)

[150]Edlin, B.R. Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in injection drug users. Hepatology. 2002; 36: S210S219
CrossRef | PubMed

[151]Harmatz, P., Jonas, M.M., Kwiatkowski, J.L., Wright, E.C., Fischer, R., Vichinsky, E. et al. Safety and efficacy of pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin for the treatment of hepatitis C in patients with thalassemia. Haematol Hematol J. 2008; 93: 12471251
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (20)

[152]Strader, D.B., Wright, T., Thomas, D.L., and Seeff, L.B. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2004; 39: 11471171
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1192)

[153]Wiegand, J., Jackel, E., Cornberg, M., Hinrichsen, H., Dietrich, M., Kroeger, J. et al. Long-term follow-up after successful interferon therapy of acute hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 98107
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (54)

[154]Wiegand, J., Buggisch, P., Boecher, W., Zeuzem, S., Gelbmann, C.M., Berg, T. et al. Early monotherapy with pegylated interferon alpha-2b for acute hepatitis C infection: the HEP-NET acute-HCV-II study. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 250256
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (143)

[155]Mondelli, M.U., Cerino, A., and Cividini, A. Acute hepatitis C: diagnosis and management. J Hepatol. 2005; 42: S108S114
PubMed | Scopus (34)

[156]Dienstag, J.L. Management of hepatitis C reply. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 332333
PubMed

[157]Hofer, H., Watkins-Riedel, T., Janata, O., Penner, E., Gangl, A., and Ferenci, P. Spontaneous viral clearance in patients with acute hepatitis C: predictability by repeated measurements of serum HCV concentration. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 286A

[158]Flisiak, R. and Parfieniuk, A. Investigational drugs for hepatitis C. Expert Opin Invest Drugs. 2010; 19: 6375
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (36)

[159]Zeuzem S, Andreone P, Pol S, Lawitz EJ, Diago M, Roberts S, Focaccia R, Younossi ZM, Foster GR, Horban A, Pockros PJ, Van Heeswijk R, de Meyer S, Luo D, Picchio G, Beumont M. Realize trial final results: telaprevir-based regimen for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection in patients with prior null response, partial response or relapse to peginterferon/ribavarin. Abstracts of the International Liver Congress 2011.