EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines

References

[1]European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 227242
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (972)

[2]Fattovich, G. Natural history and prognosis of hepatitis B. Semin Liver Dis. 2003; 23: 4758
CrossRef | PubMed

[3]McMahon, B.J. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Semin Liver Dis. 2004; 24: 1721
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (53)

[4]Hadziyannis, S.J. and Papatheodoridis, G.V. Hepatitis Be antigen negative chronic hepatitis B natural history and treatment. Semin Liver Dis. 2006; 26: 130141
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (95)

[5]Ganem, D. and Prince, A.M. Hepatitis B virus infection natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 11181129
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (905)

[6]Hoofnagle, J.H., Doo, E., Liang, T.J., Fleischer, R., and Lok, A.S. Management of hepatitis B: summary of a clinical research workshop. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 10561075
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (319)

[7]Liaw, Y.F. Prevention and surveillance of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Liver Dis. 2005; 25: 4047
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (48)

[8]Lok, A.S. and McMahon, B.J. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 507539
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1259)

[9]Zarski, J.P., Marcellin, P., Leroy, V., Trepo, C., Samuel, D., Ganne-Carrie, N. et al. Characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B in France: predominant frequency of HBe antigen negative cases. J Hepatol. 2006; 45: 343346
Scopus (69)

[10]Funk, M.L., Rosenberg, D.M., and Lok, A.S.F. World-wide epidemiology of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and associated precore and core promoter variants. J Viral Hepat. 2002; 9: 5261
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (207)

[11]Fattovich, G., Bortolotti, F., and Donato, F. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: special emphasis on disease progression and prognostic factors. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 335352
PubMed | Scopus (259)

[12]Fattovich, G., Olivari, N., Pasino, M., DOnofrio, M., Martone, E., and Donato, F. Long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in Caucasian patients: mortality after 25 years. Gut. 2008; 57: 8490
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (86)

[13]Fattovich, G., Stroffolini, T., Zagni, I., and Donato, F. Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: incidence and risk factors. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S35S50
PubMed | Scopus (655)

[14]Papatheodoridis GV, Manolakopoulos S, Liaw Y-F, Lok A. Follow-up and indications for liver biopsy in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection with persistently normal ALT: a systematic review. J Hepatol 2012, in press.

[15]Martinot-Peignoux, M., Boyer, N., Colombat, M., Akremi, R., Pham, B.-N., Ollivier, S. et al. Serum hepatitis B virus DNA levels and liver histology in inactive HBsAg carriers. J Hepatol. 2002; 36: 543548
PubMed | Scopus (120)

[16]Manesis, E., Papatheodoridis, G.V., Sevastianos, V., Cholongitas, E., Papaioannou, C., and Hadziyannis, S.J. Significance of hepatitis B viremia levels determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 22612267
PubMed

[17]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Manesis, E.K., Manolakopoulos, S., Elefsiniotis, I.S., Goulis, J., Giannousis, J. et al. Is there a meaningful serum HBV DNA cut-off level for therapeutic decisions in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection?. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 14511459
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (51)

[18]de Franchis, R., Meucci, G., Vecchi, M., Tatarella, M., Colombo, M., Del Ninno, E. et al. The natural history of asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118: 191194
CrossRef | PubMed

[19]Tai, D.I., Lin, S.M., Sheen, I.S., Chu, C.M., Lin, D.Y., and Liaw, Y.F. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis B surface antigen carriers in relation to changes of alanine aminotransferase levels over time. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 18591867
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (50)

[20]Chen, Y.-C., Huang, S.-F., Chu, C.-M., and Liaw, Y.-F. Serial HBV DNA levels in patients with persistently normal transaminase over 10 years following spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. J Viral Hepat. 2012; 19: 138146
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (9)

[21]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Chrysanthos, N., Hadziyannis, E., Cholongitas, E., and Manesis, E.K. Longitudinal changes in serum HBV DNA levels and predictors of progression during the natural course of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2008; 15: 434441
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (32)

[22]Brunetto, M.R., Oliveri, F., Colombatto, P., Moriconi, F., Ciccorossi, P., Coco, B. et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen serum levels help to distinguish active from inactive hepatitis B virus genotype D carriers. Gastroenterology. 2010; 139: 483490
PubMed | Scopus (91)

[23]Hadziyannis, S.J. and Vassilopoulos, D. Hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2001; 34: 617624
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (311)

[24]Brunetto, M.R., Giarin, M., Oliveri, F., Saracco, G., Barbera, C., Parella, T. et al. e Antigen defective hepatitis B virus and course of chronic infection. J Hepatol. 1991; 13: S82S86
PubMed

[25]Brunetto, M.R., Oliveri, F., Coco, B., Leandro, G., Colombatto, P., Gorin, J.M. et al. Outcome of anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B in alpha-interferon treated and untreated patients: a long-term cohort study. J Hepatol. 2002; 36: 263270
PubMed | Scopus (234)

[26]Raimondo, G., Allain, J.P., Brunetto, M.R., Buendia, M.A., Chen, D.S., Colombo, M. et al. Statements from the Taormina expert meeting on occult hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 652657
PubMed | Scopus (172)

[27]Knoll, A., Pietrzyk, M., Loss, M., Goetz, W.A., and Jilg, W. Solid-organ transplantation in HBsAg-negative patients with antibodies to HBV core antigen: low risk of HBV reactivation. Transplantation. 2005; 79: 16311633
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (30)

[28]Marcellin, P., Giostra, E., Martinotpeignoux, M., Loriot, M.A., Jaegle, M.L., Wolf, P. et al. Redevelopment of hepatitis-B surface-antigen after renal-transplantation. Gastroenterology. 1991; 100: 14321434
PubMed

[29]Huo, T.I., Wu, J.C., Lee, P.C., Chau, G.Y., Lui, W.Y., Tsay, S.H. et al. Sero-clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen in chronic carriers does not necessarily imply a good prognosis. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 231236
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (154)

[30]Chen, Y.C., Sheen, I.S., Chu, C.M., and Liaw, Y.F. Prognosis following spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance in chronic hepatitis B patients with or without concurrent infection. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 10841089
PubMed | Scopus (135)

[31]Simonetti, J., Bulkow, L., McMahon, B.J., Homan, C., Snowball, M., Negus, S. et al. Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a cohort chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 15311537
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (47)

[32]Guyatt, G.H., Oxman, A.D., Kunz, R., Falck-Ytter, Y., Vist, G.E., Liberati, A. et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. BMJ. 2008; 336: 10491051
CrossRef | PubMed

[33]Guyatt, G.H., Oxman, A.D., Kunz, R., Vist, G.E., Falck-Ytter, Y., and Schunemann, H.J. What is quality of evidence and why is it important to clinicians?. BMJ. 2008; 336: 995998
CrossRef | PubMed

[34]Guyatt, G.H., Oxman, A.D., Vist, G.E., Kunz, R., Falck-Ytter, Y., Alonso-Coello, P. et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2008; 336: 924926
CrossRef | PubMed

[35]Guyatt, G.H., Oxman, A.D., Kunz, R., Jaeschke, R., Helfand, M., Liberati, A. et al. Incorporating considerations of resources use into grading recommendations. BMJ. 2008; 336: 11701173
CrossRef | PubMed

[36]Jaeschke, R., Guyatt, G.H., Dellinger, P., Schunemann, H., Levy, M.M., Kunz, R. et al. Use of GRADE grid to reach decisions on clinical practice guidelines when consensus is elusive. BMJ. 2008; 337: a744DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a744
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a744 | CrossRef | Scopus (30)

[37]Schunemann, H.J., Oxman, A.D., Brozek, J., Glasziou, P., Jaeschke, R., Vist, G.E. et al. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations for diagnostic tests and strategies. BMJ. 2008; 336: 11061110
CrossRef | PubMed

[38]Stelzl, E., Muller, Z., Marth, E., and Kessler, H.H. Rapid quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA by automated sample preparation and real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42: 24452449
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (37)

[39]Thibault, V., Pichoud, C., Mullen, C., Rhoads, J., Smith, J.B., Bitbol, A. et al. Characterization of a new sensitive PCR assay for quantification of viral DNA isolated from patients with hepatitis B virus infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45: 39483953
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (24)

[40]Chevaliez, S., Bouvier-Alias, M., Laperche, S., and Pawlotsky, J.M. Performance of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan real-time PCR assay for hepatitis B virus DNA quantification. J Clin Microbiol. 2008; 46: 17161723
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (24)

[41]Pawlotsky, J.M., Dusheiko, G., Hatzakis, A., Lau, D., Lau, G., Liang, T.J. et al. Virologic monitoring of hepatitis B virus therapy in clinical trials and practice: recommendations for a standardized approach. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 405415
PubMed | Scopus (120)

[42]Saldanha, J., Gerlich, W., Lelie, N., Dawson, P., Heermann, K., and Heath, A. An international collaborative study to establish a World Health Organization international standard for hepatitis B virus DNA nucleic acid amplification techniques. Vox Sanguinis. 2001; 80: 6371
CrossRef | Scopus (145)

[43]Bedossa, P., Dargere, D., and Paradis, V. Sampling variability of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2003; 38: 14491457
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (0)

[44]Myers, R.P., Tainturier, M.H., Ratziu, V., Piton, A., Thibault, V., Imbert-Bismut, F. et al. Prediction of liver histological lesions with biochemical markers in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2003; 39: 222230
PubMed | Scopus (206)

[45]Poynard, T., Morra, R., Halfon, P., Castera, L., Ratziu, V., Imbert-Bismut, F. et al. Meta-analyses of FibroTest diagnostic value in chronic liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2007; 7: 40
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (123)

[46]Marcellin, P., Ziol, M., Bedossa, P., Douvin, C., Poupon, R., De, L.V. et al. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis by stiffness measurement in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int. 2009; 29: 242247
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (155)

[47]Castera, L. Transient elastography and other non-invasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16: 300314
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (61)

[48]Castera, L., Bernard, P.H., Le, B.B., Foucher, J., Trimoulet, P., Merrouche, W. et al. Transient elastography and biomarkers for liver fibrosis assessment and follow-up of inactive hepatitis B carriers. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 33: 455465
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (13)

[49]Fraquelli, M. and Branchi, F. The role of transient elastography in patients with hepatitis B viral disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2011; 43: S25S31
Scopus (2)

[50]Cardoso, A.C., Carvalho-Filho, R.J., and Marcellin, P. Transient elastography in chronic viral hepatitis: a critical appraisal. Gut. 2011; 60: 759764
CrossRef | Scopus (10)

[51]Cardoso, A.C., Carvalho-Filho, R.J., Stern, C., Dipumpo, A., Giuily, N., Ripault, M.P. et al. Direct comparison of diagnostic performance of transient elastography in patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2012; 32: 612621
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (12)

[52]Arena, U., Vizzutti, F., Corti, G., Ambu, S., Stasi, C., Bresci, S. et al. Acute viral hepatitis increases liver stiffness values measured by transient elastography. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 380384
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (244)

[53]Tsochatzis, E.A., Gurusamy, K.S., Ntaoula, S., Cholongitas, E., Davidson, B.R., and Burroughs, A.K. Elastography for the diagnosis of severity of fibrosis in chronic liver disease: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. J Hepatol. 2011; 54: 650659
PubMed | Scopus (59)

[54]Liaw, Y.F., Sung, J.J., Chow, W.C., Farrell, G., Lee, C.Z., Yuen, H. et al. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 15211531
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1051)

[55]Brechot, C., Hadchouel, M., Scotto, J., Fonck, M., Potet, F., Vyas, G.N. et al. State of hepatitis B virus DNA in hepatocytes of patients with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and -negative liver diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1981; 78: 39063910
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (68)

[56]Brechot, C., Thiers, V., Kremsdorf, D., Nalpas, B., Pol, S., and Paterlini-Brechot, P. Persistent hepatitis B virus infection in subjects without hepatitis B surface antigen: clinically significant or purely occult?. Hepatology. 2001; 34: 194203
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (353)

[57]Brechot, C. Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: old and new paradigms. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: S56S61
PubMed | Scopus (188)

[58]Bonilla, G.R. and Roberts, L.R. The role of hepatitis B virus integrations in the pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2005; 42: 760777
Scopus (48)

[59]Pollicino, T., Saitta, C., and Raimondo, G. Hepatocellular carcinoma: the point of view of the hepatitis B virus. Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32: 11221132
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[60]Shim, J.H., Lee, H.C., Kim, K.M., Lim, Y.S., Chung, Y.H., Lee, Y.S. et al. Efficacy of entecavir in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 176182
PubMed | Scopus (68)

[61]Liaw, Y.F., Sheen, I.S., Lee, C.M., Akarca, U.S., Papatheodoridis, G.V., Suet-Hing, W.F. et al. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine/TDF, and entecavir in patients with decompensated chronic hepatitis B liver disease. Hepatology. 2011; 53: 6272
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (78)

[62]Liaw, Y.F., Raptopoulou-Gigi, M., Cheinquer, H., Sarin, S.K., Tanwandee, T., Leung, N. et al. Efficacy and safety of entecavir versus adefovir in chronic hepatitis B patients with hepatic decompensation: a randomized, open-label study. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 91100
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (51)

[63]Lau, G.K., Piratvisuth, T., Luo, K.X., Marcellin, P., Thongsawat, S., Cooksley, G. et al. Peginterferon Alfa-2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 26822695
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (754)

[64]Janssen, H.L., van, Z.M., Senturk, H., Zeuzem, S., Akarca, U.S., Cakaloglu, Y. et al. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2005; 365: 123129
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (575)

[65]Lai, C.L., Chien, R.N., Leung, N.W., Chang, T.T., Guan, R., Tai, D.I. et al. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. Asia Hepatitis Lamivudine Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 6168
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1492)

[66]Dienstag, J.L., Schiff, E.R., Wright, T.L., Perrillo, R.P., Hann, H.W., Goodman, Z. et al. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 12561263
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1115)

[67]Chang, T.T., Gish, R.G., de Man, R., Gadano, A., Sollano, J., Chao, Y.C. et al. A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 10011010
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (719)

[68]Lai, C.L., Gane, E., Liaw, Y.F., Hsu, C.W., Thongsawat, S., Wang, Y. et al. Telbivudine versus lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 25762588
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (388)

[69]Marcellin, P., Chang, T.T., Lim, S.G., Tong, M.J., Sievert, W., Shiffman, M.L. et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 808816
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (944)

[70]Marcellin, P., Heathcote, E.J., Buti, M., Gane, E., de Man, R.A., Krastev, Z. et al. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus adefovir dipivoxil for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 24422455
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (379)

[71]Liaw, Y.F., Jia, J.D., Chan, H.L., Han, K.H., Tanwandee, T., Chuang, W.L. et al. Shorter durations and lower doses of peginterferon alfa-2a are associated with inferior hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion rates in hepatitis B virus genotypes B or C. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 15911599
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (30)

[72]Van Zonneveld, M., Honkoop, P., Hansen, B.E., Niesters, H.G., Murad, S.D., de Man, R.A. et al. Long-term follow-up of alpha-interferon treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2004; 39: 804810
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (180)

[73]Liaw, Y.-F., Leung, N.W.Y., Chang, T.-T., Guan, R., Tai, D.-I., Ng, K.-Y. et al. Effects of extended lamivudine therapy in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2000; 119: 172180
PubMed

[74]Lok, A.S., Lai, C.L., Leung, N., Yao, G.B., Cui, Z.Y., Schiff, E.R. et al. Long-term safety of lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2003; 125: 17141722
PubMed | Scopus (448)

[75]Leung, N.W., Lai, C.L., Chang, T.T., Guan, R., Lee, C.M., Ni, Y.H. et al. Extended lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B enhances hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion rates: results after 3 years of therapy. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 15271532
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (536)

[76]Marcellin, P., Chang, T.T., Lim, S.G., Sievert, W., Tong, M., Arterburn, S. et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 750758
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (135)

[77]Liaw, Y.F., Gane, E., Leung, N., Zeuzem, S., Wang, Y., Lai, C.L. et al. 2-Year GLOBE trial results: telbivudine Is superior to lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 486495
PubMed | Scopus (221)

[78]Chang, T.T., Lai, C.L., Kew, Y.S., Lee, S.S., Coelho, H.S., Carrilho, F.J. et al. Entecavir treatment for up to 5 years in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 422430
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (127)

[79]Reijnders, J.G., Perquin, M.J., Zhang, N., Hansen, B.E., and Janssen, H.L. Nucleos(t)ide analogues only induce temporary hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in most patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2010; 139: 491498
PubMed | Scopus (52)

[80]van Nunen, A.B., Hansen, B.E., Suh, D.J., Lohr, H.F., Chemello, L., Fontaine, H. et al. Durability of HBeAg seroconversion following antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: relation to type of therapy and pre-treatment serum hepatitis B virus DNA and alanine aminotransferase. Gut. 2003; 52: 420424
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (120)

[81]Buster, E.H., Flink, H.J., Cakaloglu, Y., Simon, K., Trojan, J., Tabak, F. et al. Sustained HBeAg and HBsAg loss after long-term follow-up of HBeAg-positive patients treated with peginterferon alpha-2b. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135: 459467
PubMed | Scopus (118)

[82]Wong, V.W., Wong, G.L., Yan, K.K., Chim, A.M., Chan, H.Y., Tse, C.H. et al. Durability of peginterferon alfa-2b treatment at 5 years in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 19451953
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (40)

[83]Yuen, M.F., Seto, W.K., Fung, J., Wong, D.K., Yuen, J.C., and Lai, C.L. Three years of continuous entecavir therapy in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients: viral suppression, viral resistance, and clinical safety. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011; 106: 12641271
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (30)

[84]Marcellin, P., Buti, M., Gane, E.J., Krastev, Z., Flisiak, R., Germanidis, G. et al. Five years of treatment with tenofovir DF (TDF) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is associated with sustained viral suppression and significant regression of histological fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 1011A
Scopus (46)

[85]Heathcote, E.J., Marcellin, P., Buti, M., Gane, E., de Man, R.A., Krastev, Z. et al. Three-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate treatment for chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 132143
PubMed | Scopus (117)

[86]Buster, E.H., Flink, H.J., Simsek, H., Heathcote, E.J., Sharmila, S., Kitis, G.E. et al. Early HBeAg loss during peginterferon alpha-2b therapy predicts HBsAg loss: results of a long-term follow-up study in chronic hepatitis B patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104: 24492457
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (11)

[87]Moucari, R., Korevaar, A., Lada, O., Martinot-Peignoux, M., Boyer, N., Mackiewicz, V. et al. High rates of HBsAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients responding to interferon: a long-term follow-up study. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 10841092
PubMed | Scopus (70)

[88]Piratvisuth, T., Lau, G., Chao, Y.C., Jin, R., Chutaputti, A., Zhang, Q.B. et al. Sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kD) with or without lamivudine in Asian patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatol Int. 2008; 2: 102110
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (25)

[89]Gish, R.G., Chang, T.T., Lai, C.L., de, M.R., Gadano, A., Poordad, F. et al. Loss of HBsAg antigen during treatment with entecavir or lamivudine in nucleoside-naive HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat. 2010; 17: 1622
CrossRef | Scopus (34)

[90]Tassopoulos, N.C., Volpes, R., Pastore, G., Heathcote, J., Buti, M., Goldin, R.D. et al. Efficacy of lamivudine in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-negative/hepatitis B virus DNA-positive (precore mutant) chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 889896
CrossRef | PubMed

[91]Marcellin, P., Lau, G.K., Bonino, F., Farci, P., Hadziyannis, S., Jin, R. et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a alone, lamivudine alone, and the two in combination in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 12061217
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (651)

[92]Lai, C.L., Shouval, D., Lok, A.S., Chang, T.T., Cheinquer, H., Goodman, Z. et al. Entecavir versus lamivudine for patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 10111020
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (629)

[93]Hadziyannis, S.J., Tassopoulos, N.C., Heathcote, E.J., Chang, T.T., Kitis, G., Rizzetto, M. et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 800807
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (732)

[94]Hadziyannis, S.J., Tassopoulos, N.C., Heathcote, E.J., Chang, T.T., Kitis, G., Rizzetto, M. et al. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 26732681
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (389)

[95]Shouval, D., Lai, C.L., Chang, T.T., Cheinquer, H., Martin, P., Carosi, G. et al. Relapse of hepatitis B in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients who discontinued successful entecavir treatment: the case for continuous antiviral therapy. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: 289295
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (49)

[96]Shouval, D., Lai, C.-L., Chang, T.-T., Gadano, A., Wu, S.-S., Halota, W. et al. Three years of entecavir (ETV) re-treatment of HBeAg(−) ETV patients who previously discontinued ETV treatment: results from study ETV-901. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 722A

[97]Marcellin, P., Bonino, F., Lau, G.K., Farci, P., Yurdaydin, C., Piratvisuth, T. et al. Sustained response of hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients 3 years after treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a. Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 21692179
PubMed | Scopus (119)

[98]Marcellin, P., Piratvisuth, T., Brunetto, M., Bonino, F., Lau, G.K.K., Farci, P. et al. Increasing rates of HBsAg clearance and seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-negative disease treated with peginterferon alfa-2a  lamivudine: results of 5-year post-treatment follow up. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: S336

[99]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Dimou, E., Dimakopoulos, K., Manolakopoulos, S., Rapti, I., Kitis, G. et al. Outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B on long-term nucleos(t)ide analog therapy starting with lamivudine. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 121129
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (122)

[100]Hadziyannis, S.J., Tassopoulos, N.C., Heathcote, E.J., Chang, T.T., Kitis, G., Rizzetto, M. et al. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B for up to 5 years. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 17431751
PubMed | Scopus (474)

[101]Perrillo, R.P., Schiff, E.R., Davis, G.L., Bodenheimer, H.C., Lindsay, K., Payne, J. et al. A randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2B alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis-B. N Engl J Med. 1990; 323: 295301
CrossRef | PubMed

[102]Wong, D.K.H., Cheung, A.M., ORourke, K., Naylor, C.D., Detsky, A.S., and Heathcote, J. Effect of alpha-interferon in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119: 312323
CrossRef | PubMed

[103]Flink, H.J., van, Z.M., Hansen, B.E., de Man, R.A., Schalm, S.W., and Janssen, H.L. Treatment with peg-interferon alpha-2b for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: HBsAg loss is associated with HBV genotype. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 297303
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (141)

[104]Buster, E.H., Hansen, B.E., Lau, G.K., Piratvisuth, T., Zeuzem, S., Steyerberg, E.W. et al. Factors that predict response of patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B to peginterferon-alfa. Gastroenterology. 2009; 137: 20022009
PubMed | Scopus (97)

[105]Fried, M.W., Piratvisuth, T., Lau, G.K., Marcellin, P., Chow, W.C., Cooksley, G. et al. HBeAg and hepatitis B virus DNA as outcome predictors during therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 428434
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (118)

[106]Flink, H.J., Sprengers, D., Hansen, B.E., van, Z.M., de Man, R.A., Schalm, S.W. et al. Flares in chronic hepatitis B patients induced by the host or the virus? Relation to treatment response during peg-interferon {alpha}-2b therapy. Gut. 2005; 54: 16041609
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (49)

[107]Piratvisuth T, Marcellin P, Popescu M, Kapprell HP, Rothe V, Lu ZM. Hepatitis B surface antigen: association with sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2a in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients. Hepatol Int 2011. PMID: 21701902 [Epub ahead of print].

[108]Gane, E., Jia, J., Han, K., Tanwandee, T., Chuang, W.L., Chuang, W.L. et al. Neptune study: on-treatment HBsAg level analysis confirms prediction of response observed in phase 3 study of peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-positive patients. J Hepatol. 2011; 54: S31
Abstract | Full Text PDF

[109]Sonneveld, M.J., Rijckborst, V., Boucher, C.A., Hansen, B.E., and Janssen, H.L. Prediction of sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2b for hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B using on-treatment hepatitis B surface antigen decline. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 12511257
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (85)

[110]Bonino, F., Marcellin, P., Lau, G.K., Hadziyannis, S., Jin, R., Piratvisuth, T. et al. Predicting response to peginterferon alpha-2a, lamivudine and the two combined for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Gut. 2007; 56: 699705
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (136)

[111]Rijckborst, V., Hansen, B.E., Cakaloglu, Y., Ferenci, P., Tabak, F., Akdogan, M. et al. Early on-treatment prediction of response to peginterferon alfa-2a for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B using HBsAg and HBV DNA levels. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 454461
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (81)

[112]Rijckborst, V., Hansen, B.E., Ferenci, P., Brunetto, M.R., Tabak, F., Cakaloglu, Y. et al. Validation of a stopping rule at week 12 using HBsAg and HBV DNA for HBeAg-negative patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a. J Hepatol. 2012; 56: 10061011
PubMed | Scopus (25)

[113]Brunetto, M.R., Moriconi, F., Bonino, F., Lau, G.K., Farci, P., Yurdaydin, C. et al. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen levels: a guide to sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 11411150
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (206)

[114]Moucari, R., Mackiewicz, V., Lada, O., Ripault, M.P., Castelnau, C., Martinot-Peignoux, M. et al. Early serum HBsAg drop: a strong predictor of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-negative patients. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 11511157
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (191)

[115]Moucari, R., Martinot-Peignoux, M., Mackiewicz, V., Boyer, N., Ripault, M.P., Castelnau, C. et al. Influence of genotype on hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients treated with pegylated interferon-alpha2a. Antivir Ther. 2009; 14: 11831188
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (35)

[116]Perrillo, R.P., Lai, C.L., Liaw, Y.F., Dienstag, J.L., Schiff, E.R., Schalm, S.W. et al. Predictors of HBeAg loss after lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 186194
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (220)

[117]Wiegand, J., Hasenclever, D., and Tillmann, H.L. Should treatment of hepatitis B depend on hepatitis B virus genotypes? A hypothesis generated from an explorative analysis of published evidence. Antivir Ther. 2008; 13: 211220
PubMed

[118]Yuen, M.F., Sablon, E., Hui, C.K., Yuan, H.J., Decraemer, H., and Lai, C.L. Factors associated with hepatitis B virus DNA breakthrough in patients receiving prolonged lamivudine therapy. Hepatology. 2001; 34: 785791
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (287)

[119]Zeuzem, S., Gane, E., Liaw, Y.F., Lim, S.G., DiBisceglie, A., Buti, M. et al. Baseline characteristics and early on-treatment response predict the outcomes of 2 years of telbivudine treatment of chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009; 51: 1120
PubMed | Scopus (89)

[120]Wursthorn, K., Jung, M., Riva, A., Goodman, Z.D., Lopez, P., Bao, W. et al. Kinetics of hepatitis B surface antigen decline during 3 years of telbivudine treatment in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 16111620
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (64)

[121]Lee, J.M., Ahn, S.H., Kim, H.S., Park, H., Chang, H.Y., Kim, D.Y. et al. Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers in prediction of treatment response to entecavir. Hepatology. 2011; 53: 14861493
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (30)

[122]Marcellin, P., Heathcote, E.J., Buti, M., Krastev, Z., Jacobson, I., de Man, R.A. et al. HBsAg kinetics in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for up to 4 years. J Hepatol. 2011; 54: S297
Abstract | Full Text PDF

[123]Marcellin, P., Heathcote, E.J., Corsa, A., Liu, Y., Miller, M.D., and Kitrinos, K.M. No detectable resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) following up to 240 weeks of treatment in patients with HBeAg+ and HBeAg− chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 480A

[124]Lok, A.S., Hussain, M., Cursano, C., Margotti, M., Gramenzi, A., Grazi, G.L. et al. Evolution of hepatitis B virus polymerase gene mutations in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients receiving lamivudine therapy. Hepatology. 2000; 32: 11451153
CrossRef | PubMed

[125]Hadziyannis, S.J., Papatheodoridis, G.V., Dimou, E., Laras, A., and Papaioannou, C. Efficacy of long-term lamivudine monotherapy in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2000; 32: 847851
CrossRef | PubMed

[126]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Dimou, E., Laras, A., Papadimitropoulos, V., and Hadziyannis, S.J. Course of virologic breakthroughs under long-term lamivudine in HBeAg-negative precore mutant HBV liver disease. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 219226
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (182)

[127]Di Marco, V., Marzano, A., Lampertico, P., Andreone, P., Santantonio, T., Almasio, P.L. et al. Clinical outcome of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in relation to virological response to lamivudine. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 883891
CrossRef | PubMed

[128]Gane, E.J., Wang, Y., Liaw, Y.F., Hou, J., Thongsawat, S., Wan, M. et al. Efficacy and safety of prolonged 3-year telbivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int. 2011; 31: 676684
CrossRef | Scopus (19)

[129]Marcellin, P., Avila, C., Wursthorn, K., Chuang, W.L., Lau, G.K., Peng, C.Y. et al. Telbivudine (LDT) plus peg-interferon (PEGIFN) in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B very potent antiviral efficacy but risk of peripheral neuropathy (PN). J Hepatol. 2010; 52: S6S7

[130]Lee, H.W., Lee, H.J., Hwang, J.S., Sohn, J.H., Jang, J.Y., Han, K.J. et al. Lamivudine maintenance beyond one year after HBeAg seroconversion is a major factor for sustained virologic response in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 415421
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (27)

[131]Song, B.-C., Suh, D.J., Lee, H.C., Chung, Y.-H., and Lee, Y.S. Hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion after lamivudine therapy is not durable in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Korea. Hepatology. 2000; 32: 803806
CrossRef | PubMed

[132]Dienstag, J.L., Cianciara, J., Karayalcin, S., Kowdley, K.V., Willems, B., Plisek, S. et al. Durability of serologic response after lamivudine treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 748755
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (174)

[133]Yoon, S.K., Jang, J.W., Kim, C.W., Bae, S.H., Choi, J.Y., Choi, S.W. et al. Long-term results of lamivudine monotherapy in Korean patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: response and relapse rates, and factors related to durability of HBeAg seroconversion. Intervirology. 2005; 48: 341349
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (18)

[134]Wu, I.C., Shiffman, M.L., Tong, M.J., Marcellin, P., Mondou, E., Frederick, D. et al. Sustained hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in patients with chronic hepatitis B after adefovir dipivoxil treatment: analysis of precore and basal core promoter mutants. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47: 13051311
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (7)

[135]Lok, A.S., Trihn, H.N., Carosi, G., Akarca, U.S., Gadano, A., Habersetzer, F. et al. Entecavir (ETV) monotherapy for 96 weeks is comparable to combination therapy with ETV plus tenofovir (TDF) in nucleos(t)ide naive patients with chronic hepatitis B: the BELOW study. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 471A
Scopus (24)

[136]Lok, A.S., Zoulim, F., Locarnini, S., Bartholomeusz, A., Ghany, M.G., Pawlotsky, J.M. et al. Antiviral drug-resistant HBV: standardization of nomenclature and assays and recommendations for management. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 254265
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (223)

[137]Zoutendijk, R., Reijnders, J.G., Brown, A., Zoulim, F., Mutimer, D., Deterding, K. et al. Entecavir treatment for chronic hepatitis B: adaptation is not needed for the majority of naive patients with a partial virological response. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 443451
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (38)

[138]Lampertico, P., Vigano, P., Manenti, E., Iavarone, M., Lunghi, G., and Colombo, M. Adefovir rapidly suppresses hepatitis B in HBeAg-negative patients developing genotypic resistance to lamivudine. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 14141419
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (202)

[139]Zoulim, F. and Locarnini, S. Hepatitis B virus resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues. Gastroenterology. 2009; 137: 15931608
PubMed | Scopus (181)

[140]Van Bommel, F., de Man, R.A., Wedemeyer, H., Deterding, K., Petersen, J., Buggisch, P. et al. Long-term efficacy of tenofovir monotherapy for hepatitis B virus-monoinfected patients after failure of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 7380
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (116)

[141]Reijnders, J.G., Deterding, K., Petersen, J., Zoulim, F., Santantonio, T., Buti, M. et al. Antiviral effect of entecavir in chronic hepatitis B: influence of prior exposure to nucleos(t)ide analogues. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 493500
PubMed | Scopus (50)

[142]Berg, T., Marcellin, P., Zoulim, F., Moller, B., Trinh, H., Chan, S. et al. Tenofovir is effective alone or with emtricitabine in adefovir-treated patients with chronic-hepatitis B virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2010; 139: 12071217
PubMed | Scopus (53)

[143]Manesis, E.K. and Hadziyannis, S.J. Interferon-alpha treatment and retreatment of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2001; 121: 101109
PubMed

[144]Gane, E.J., Deary, G., Piratvisuth, T., Chan, H.L., Zeuzem, S., Jia, J. et al. Renal function is improved for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with telbivudine. Hepatology. 2011; 54: 1044A

[145]Ha, N.B., Ha, N.B., Garcia, R.T., Trinh, H.N., Vu, A.A., Nguyen, H.A. et al. Renal dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B patients treated with adefovir dipivoxil. Hepatology. 2009; 50: 727734
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[146]Perrillo, R., Tamburro, C., Regenstein, F., Balart, L., Bodenheimer, H., Silva, M. et al. Low-dose, titratable interferon alfa in decompensated liver disease caused by chronic infection with hepatitis B virus. Gastroenterology. 1995; 109: 908916
PubMed | Scopus (148)

[147]Buster, E.H., Hansen, B.E., Buti, M., Delwaide, J., Niederau, C., Michielsen, P.P. et al. Peginterferon alpha-2b is safe and effective in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 388394
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (59)

[148]Schiff, E., Simsek, H., Lee, W.M., Chao, Y.C., Sette, H. Jr., Janssen, H.L. et al. Efficacy and safety of entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 27762783
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (51)

[149]Buti, M., Hadziyannis, S., Mathurin, P., Urbanek, P., Sherman, M., Strasser, S. et al. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly active for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in subjects with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: S33

[150]Chang, T.T., Liaw, Y.F., Wu, S.S., Schiff, E., Han, K.H., Lai, C.L. et al. Long-term entecavir therapy results in the reversal of fibrosis/cirrhosis and continued histological improvement in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 886893
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (131)

[151]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Lampertico, P., Manolakopoulos, S., and Lok, A. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving nucleos(t)ide therapy: a systematic review. J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 348356
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (80)

[152]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Manolakopoulos, S., Touloumi, G., Vourli, G., Raptopoulou-Gigi, M., Vafiadis-Zoumbouli, I. et al. Virological suppression does not prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis receiving oral antiviral(s) starting with lamivudine monotherapy: results of the nationwide HEPNET. Greece cohort study. Gut. 2011; 60: 11091116
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (28)

[153]Lange, C.M., Bojunga, J., Hofmann, W.P., Wunder, K., Mihm, U., Zeuzem, S. et al. Severe lactic acidosis during treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir in patients with impaired liver function. Hepatology. 2009; 50: 20012006
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (91)

[154]Fontana, R.J., Hann, H.W., Perrillo, R.P., Vierling, J.M., Wright, T., Rakela, J. et al. Determinants of early mortality in patients with decompensated chronic hepatitis B treated with antiviral therapy. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 719727
PubMed | Scopus (155)

[155]Papatheodoridis, G.V., Cholongitas, E., Archimandritis, A.J., and Burroughs, A.K. Current management of hepatitis B virus infection before and after liver transplantation. Liver Int. 2009; 29: 12941305
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (25)

[156]Grellier, L., Mutimer, D., Ahmed, M., Brown, D., Burroughs, A.K., Rolles, K. et al. Lamivudine prophylaxis against reinfection in liver transplantation for hepatitis B cirrhosis. Lancet. 1996; 348: 12121215
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (336)

[157]Samuel, D. Management of hepatitis B in liver transplantation patients. Semin Liver Dis. 2004; 24: 5562
CrossRef

[158]Schiff, E., Lai, C.L., Hadziyannis, S., Neuhaus, P., Terrault, N., Colombo, M. et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for wait-listed and post-liver transplantation patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B: final long-term results. Liver Transpl. 2007; 13: 349360
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (149)

[159]Fung, J., Cheung, C., Chan, S.C., Yuen, M.F., Chok, K.S., Sharr, W. et al. Entecavir monotherapy is effective in suppressing hepatitis B virus after liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2011; 141: 12121219
PubMed | Scopus (41)

[160]Teperman, L., Spivey, J., Poordad, F., Schiano, T., Bzowej, N., Pungpapong, S. et al. Emtricitabine/tenofovir DF combination +/− HBIG post-orthotopic liver transplantation to prevent hepatitis B recurrence in patients with normal to moderate renal impairment: interim results. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: S12S13

[161]Di Martino, V., Thevenot, T., Colin, J.F., Boyer, N., Martinot, M., Degos, F. et al. Influence of HIV infection on the response to interferon therapy and the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 18121822
PubMed | Scopus (143)

[162]Hoffmann, C.J. and Thio, C.L. Clinical implications of HIV and hepatitis B co-infection in Asia and Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007; 7: 402409
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (75)

[163]Puoti, M., Torti, C., Bruno, R., Filice, G., and Carosi, G. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B in co-infected patients. J Hepatol. 2006; 44: S65S70
PubMed | Scopus (101)

[164]Rockstroh, J.K. Influence of viral hepatitis on HIV infection. J Hepatol. 2006; 44: S25S27
PubMed | Scopus (43)

[165]Soriano, V., Puoti, M., Bonacini, M., Brook, G., Cargnel, A., Rockstroh, J. et al. Care of patients with chronic hepatitis B and HIV co-infection: recommendations from an HIVHBV International Panel. Aids. 2005; 19: 221240
CrossRef | PubMed

[166]Sulkowski, M.S. Viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 353367
PubMed | Scopus (112)

[167]Colin, J.F., Cazals-Hatem, D., Loriot, M.A., Martinot-Peignoux, M., Pham, B.N., Auperin, A. et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 13061310
CrossRef | PubMed

[168]Tuma, P., Medrano, J., Resino, S., Vispo, E., Madejon, A., Sanchez-Piedra, C. et al. Incidence of liver cirrhosis in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B or C in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther. 2010; 15: 881886
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (12)

[169]Alberti, A., Clumeck, N., Collins, S., Gerlich, W., Lundgren, J., Palu, G. et al. Short statement of the first European Consensus Conference on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in HIV co-infected patients. J Hepatol. 2005; 42: 615624
PubMed | Scopus (223)

[170]Rockstroh, J.K., Bhagani, S., Benhamou, Y., Bruno, R., Mauss, S., Peters, L. et al. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C coinfection in HIV-infected adults. HIV Med. 2008; 9: 8288
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (149)

[171]de Vries-Sluijs, T.E., Reijnders, J.G., Hansen, B.E., Zaaijer, H.L., Prins, J.M., Pas, S.D. et al. Long-term therapy with tenofovir is effective for patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. Gastroenterology. 2010; 139: 19341941
PubMed | Scopus (39)

[172]Piroth, L., Pol, S., Lacombe, K., Miailhes, P., Rami, A., Rey, D. et al. Management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in HIV positive and negative patients: the EPIB 2008 study. J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 10061012
Scopus (13)

[173]Yurdaydin, C., Idilman, R., Bozkaya, H., and Bozdayi, A.M. Natural history and treatment of chronic delta hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2010; 17: 749756
CrossRef | PubMed

[174]Hughes, S.A., Wedemeyer, H., and Harrison, P.M. Hepatitis delta virus. Lancet. 2011; 378: 7385
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (50)

[175]Mederacke, I., Bremer, B., Heidrich, B., Kirschner, J., Deterding, K., Bock, T. et al. Establishment of a novel quantitative hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA assay using the Cobas TaqMan platform to study HDV RNA kinetics. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48: 20222029
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (28)

[176]Romeo, R., Del, N.E., Rumi, M., Russo, A., Sangiovanni, A., De, F.R. et al. A 28-year study of the course of hepatitis Delta infection: a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 16291638
PubMed | Scopus (53)

[177]Niro, G.A., Smedile, A., Ippolito, A.M., Ciancio, A., Fontana, R., Olivero, A. et al. Outcome of chronic delta hepatitis in Italy: a long-term cohort study. J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 834840
Scopus (16)

[178]Farci, P. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D: new advances, old challenges. Hepatology. 2006; 44: 536539
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (20)

[179]Farci, P., Mandas, A., Coiana, A., Lai, M.E., Desmet, V., Van, E.P. et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alfa-2a. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 8894
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (179)

[180]Niro, G.A., Ciancio, A., Gaeta, G.B., Smedile, A., Marrone, A., Olivero, A. et al. Pegylated interferon alpha-2b as monotherapy or in combination with ribavirin in chronic hepatitis delta. Hepatology. 2006; 44: 713720
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (88)

[181]Yurdaydin, C., Bozkaya, H., Karaaslan, H., Onder, F.O., Erkan, O.E., Yalcin, K. et al. A pilot study of 2 years of interferon treatment in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2007; 14: 812816
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (21)

[182]Wedemeyer, H., Yurdaydin, C., Dalekos, G.N., Erhardt, A., Cakaloglu, Y., Degertekin, H. et al. Peginterferon plus adefovir versus either drug alone for hepatitis delta. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 322331
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (66)

[183]Castelnau, C., Le, G.F., Ripault, M.P., Gordien, E., Martinot-Peignoux, M., Boyer, N. et al. Efficacy of peginterferon alpha-2b in chronic hepatitis delta: relevance of quantitative RT-PCR for follow-up. Hepatology. 2006; 44: 728735
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (84)

[184]Farci, P., Roskams, T., Chessa, L., Peddis, G., Mazzoleni, A.P., Scioscia, R. et al. Long-term benefit of interferon alpha therapy of chronic hepatitis D: regression of advanced hepatic fibrosis. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 17401749
PubMed | Scopus (116)

[185]Raimondo, G., Brunetto, M.R., Pontisso, P., Smedile, A., Maina, A.M., Saitta, C. et al. Longitudinal evaluation reveals a complex spectrum of virological profiles in hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 100107
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (91)

[186]Schaper, M., Rodriguez-Frias, F., Jardi, R., Tabernero, D., Homs, M., Ruiz, G. et al. Quantitative longitudinal evaluations of hepatitis delta virus RNA and hepatitis B virus DNA shows a dynamic, complex replicative profile in chronic hepatitis B and D. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 658664
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (35)

[187]Chu, C.J. and Lee, S.D. Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: epidemiology, clinical features, viral interactions and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 23: 512520
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (63)

[188]Jamma, S., Hussain, G., and Lau, D.T. Current concepts of HBV/HCV coinfection: coexistence, but not necessarily in harmony. Curr Hepat Rep. 2010; 9: 260269
CrossRef | Scopus (5)

[189]Donato, F., Boffetta, P., and Puoti, M. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on the combined effect of hepatitis B and C virus infections in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1998; 75: 347354
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (284)

[190]Bellecave, P., Gouttenoire, J., Gajer, M., Brass, V., Koutsoudakis, G., Blum, H.E. et al. Hepatitis B and C virus coinfection: a novel model system reveals the absence of direct viral interference. Hepatology. 2009; 50: 4655
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (31)

[191]Potthoff, A., Wedemeyer, H., Boecher, W.O., Berg, T., Zeuzem, S., Arnold, J. et al. The HEP-NET B/C co-infection trial: a prospective multicenter study to investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin in patients with HBV/HCV co-infection. J Hepatol. 2008; 49: 688694
PubMed | Scopus (27)

[192]Liu, C.J., Chen, P.J., Lai, M.Y., Kao, J.H., Jeng, Y.M., and Chen, D.S. Ribavirin and interferon is effective for hepatitis C virus clearance in hepatitis B and C dually infected patients. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 568576
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (84)

[193]Zhou, J., Dore, G.J., Zhang, F., Lim, P.L., and Chen, Y.M.A. Hepatitis B and C virus coinfection in the TREAT Asia HIV observational database. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 22: 15101518
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (38)

[194]Saitta, C., Pontisso, P., Brunetto, M.R., Fargion, S., Gaeta, G.B., Niro, G.A. et al. Virological profiles in hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients under interferon plus ribavirin therapy. Antivir Ther. 2006; 11: 931934
PubMed

[195]Tassopoulos, N.C., Papaevangelou, G.J., Sjogren, M.H., Roumeliotou-Karayannis, A., Gerin, J.L., and Purcell, R.H. Natural history of acute hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatitis in Greek adults. Gastroenterology. 1987; 92: 18441850
PubMed

[196]Tillmann, H.L., Hadem, J., Leifeld, L., Zachou, K., Canbay, A., Eisenbach, C. et al. Safety and efficacy of lamivudine in patients with severe acute or fulminant hepatitis B, a multicenter experience. J Viral Hepat. 2006; 13: 256263
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (96)

[197]Lee, W.M., Squires, R.H., Nyberg, S.L., Doo, E., and Hoofnagle, J.H. Acute liver failure: summary of a workshop. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 14011415
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (173)

[198]Garg, H., Sarin, S.K., Kumar, M., Garg, V., Sharma, B.C., and Kumar, A. Tenofovir improves the outcome in patients with spontaneous reactivation of hepatitis B presenting as acute-on-chronic liver failure. Hepatology. 2011; 53: 774780
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[199]Jonas, M.M., Block, J.M., Haber, B.A., Karpen, S.J., London, W.T., Murray, K.F. et al. Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: patient selection and therapeutic options. Hepatology. 2010; 52: 21922205
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (22)

[200]Jonas, M.M., Kelly, D., Pollack, H., Mizerski, J., Sorbel, J., Frederick, D. et al. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in children and adolescents (age 2 to <18 years) with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 18631871
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (34)

[201]Jonas, M.M., Little, N.R., and Gardner, S.D. Long-term lamivudine treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B: durability of therapeutic responses and safety. J Viral Hepat. 2008; 15: 2027
PubMed

[202]Sokal, E.M., Kelly, D., Wirth, S., Mizerski, J., Dhawan, A., and Frederick, D. The pharmacokinetics and safety of adefovir dipivoxil in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008; 48: 512517
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (14)

[203]Gunson, R.N., Shouval, D., Roggendorf, M., Zaaijer, H., Nicholas, H., Holzmann, H. et al. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in health care workers (HCWs): guidelines for prevention of transmission of HBV and HCV from HCW to patients. J Clin Virol. 2003; 27: 213230
PubMed | Scopus (98)

[204]Anonymous. FDA pregnancy class definitions. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy_category/>; 2010 [accessed 08.10].
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy_category

[205]Anonymous. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. <http://www.apregistry.com/>; 2010 [accessed 08.10].
http://www.apregistry.com

[206]Bzowej, N.H. and Hepatitis, B. Therapy in pregnancy. Curr Hepat Rep. 2010; 9: 197204
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (13)

[207]del, C.R., Grosheide, P.M., Mazel, J.A., Heijtink, R.A., Hop, W.C., Gerards, L.J. et al. Ten-year neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program, The Netherlands, 19821992: protective efficacy and long-term immunogenicity. Vaccine. 1997; 15: 16241630
CrossRef | Scopus (111)

[208]Xu, W.M., Cui, Y.T., Wang, L., Yang, H., Liang, Z.Q., Li, X.M. et al. Lamivudine in late pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16: 94103
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (97)

[209]Han, G.R., Cao, M.K., Zhao, W., Jiang, H.X., Wang, C.M., Bai, S.F. et al. A prospective and open-label study for the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in pregnancy for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2011; 55: 12151221
PubMed | Scopus (42)

[210]Han, L., Zhang, H.W., Xie, J.X., Zhang, Q., Wang, H.Y., and Cao, G.W. A meta-analysis of lamivudine for interruption of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus. World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17: 43214333
CrossRef | Scopus (14)

[211]van Zonneveld, M., van Nunen, A.B., Niesters, H.G., de Man, R.A., Schalm, S.W., and Janssen, H.L. Lamivudine treatment during pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2003; 10: 294297
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (164)

[212]Su, G.G., Pan, K.H., Zhao, N.F., Fang, S.H., Yang, D.H., and Zhou, Y. Efficacy and safety of lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B in pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol. 2004; 10: 910912
PubMed

[213]Shi, Z., Yang, Y., Ma, L., Li, X., and Schreiber, A. Lamivudine in late pregnancy to interrupt in utero transmission of hepatitis B virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 116: 147159
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (43)

[214]Rawal, B.K., Parida, S., Watkins, R.P., Ghosh, P., and Smith, H. Symptomatic reactivation of hepatitis B in pregnancy. Lancet. 1991; 337: 364
Abstract | PubMed | Scopus (13)

[215]ter Borg, M.J., Leemans, W.F., de Man, R.A., and Janssen, H.L. Exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B infection after delivery. J Viral Hepat. 2008; 15: 3741
PubMed

[216]Benaboud, S., Pruvost, A., Coffie, P.A., Ekouevi, D.K., Urien, S., Arrive, E. et al. Concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in breast milk of HIV-1-infected women in Abidjan, Cote dIvoire, in the ANRS 12109 TEmAA Study, Step 2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 13151317
CrossRef | Scopus (12)

[217]Lok, A.S., Liang, R.H., Chiu, E.K., Wong, K.L., Chan, T.K., and Todd, D. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy. Report of a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1991; 100: 182188
PubMed

[218]Mindikoglu, A.L., Regev, A., and Schiff, E.R. Hepatitis B virus reactivation after cytotoxic chemotherapy: the disease and its prevention. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 4: 10761081
PubMed | Scopus (64)

[219]Esteve, M., Saro, C., Gonzalez-Huix, F., Suarez, F., Forne, M., and Viver, J.M. Chronic hepatitis B reactivation following infliximab therapy in Crohns disease patients: need for primary prophylaxis. Gut. 2004; 53: 13631365
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (278)

[220]Evens, A.M., Jovanovic, B.D., Su, Y.C., Raisch, D.W., Ganger, D., Belknap, S.M. et al. Rituximab-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoproliferative diseases: meta-analysis and examination of FDA safety reports. Ann Oncol. 2011; 22: 11701180
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (40)

[221]Hsu, C., Hsiung, C.A., Su, L.J., Hwang, W.S., Wang, M.C., Lin, S.F. et al. A revisit of prophylactic lamivudine for chemotherapy-associated hepatitis B reactivation in non-Hodgkins lymphoma: a randomized trial. Hepatology. 2008; 47: 844853
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (105)

[222]Loomba, R., Rowley, A., Wesley, R., Liang, T.J., Hoofnagle, J.H., Pucino, F. et al. Systematic review: the effect of preventive lamivudine on hepatitis B reactivation during chemotherapy. Ann Intern Med. 2008; 148: 519528
CrossRef | PubMed

[223]Lalazar, G., Rund, D., and Shouval, D. Screening, prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis B reactivation in patients with haematological malignancies. Br J Haematol. 2007; 136: 699712
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (160)

[224]Marzano, A., Angelucci, E., Andreone, P., Brunetto, M., Bruno, R., Burra, P. et al. Prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B in immunocompromised patients. Dig Liver Dis. 2007; 39: 397408
PubMed | Scopus (110)

[225]Cornberg, M., Protzer, U., Petersen, J., Wedemeyer, H., Berg, T., Jilg, W. et al. Prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of hepatitis B virus infection the German guideline. Z Gastroenterol. 2011; 49: 871930
CrossRef | Scopus (32)

[226]Vigano, M., Vener, C., Lampertico, P., Annaloro, C., Pichoud, C., Zoulim, F. et al. Risk of hepatitis B surface antigen seroreversion after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011; 46: 125131
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (16)

[227]Cholongitas, E., Papatheodoridis, G.V., and Burroughs, A.K. Liver grafts from anti-hepatitis B core positive donors: a systematic review. J Hepatol. 2010; 52: 272279
PubMed | Scopus (49)