EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines


[1]Gins, P., Quintero, E., Arroyo, V. et al. Compensated cirrhosis: natural history and prognostic factors. Hepatology. 1987; 7: 122128
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (379)

[2]Ripoll, C., Groszmann, R., Garcia-Tsao, G. et al. Hepatic venous gradient predicts clinical decompensation in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133: 481488
PubMed | Scopus (162)

[3]Schrier, R.W., Arroyo, V., Bernardi, M. et al. Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: a proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1988; 8: 11511157
CrossRef | PubMed

[4]Mller, S. and Henriksen, J.H. The systemic circulation in cirrhosis. in: P. Gins, V. Arroyo, J. Rods, R.W. Schrier (Eds.) Ascites and renal dysfunction in liver disease. Blackwell, Malden; 2005: 139155

[5]Henriksen, J.H. and Mller, S. Alterations of hepatic and splanchnic microvascular exchange in cirrhosis: local factors in the formation of ascites. in: P. Gins, V. Arroyo, J. Rods, R.W. Schrier (Eds.) Ascites and renal dysfunction in liver disease. Blackwell, Malden; 2005: 174185

[6]Tandon, P. and Garcia-Tsao, G. Bacterial infections, sepsis, and multiorgan failure in cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2008; 28: 2642
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (112)

[7]Guevara, M., Crdenas, A., Uriz, J., and Gins, P. Prognosis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. in: P. Gins, V. Arroyo, J. Rods, R.W. Schrier (Eds.) Ascites and renal dysfunction in liver disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Blackwell, Malden; 2005: 260270

[8]Runyon, B.A. and Practice Guidelines Committee, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2004; 39: 841855
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (209)

[9]Runyon, B.A., Montano, A.A., Akriviadis, E.A. et al. The serumascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudatetransudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. Ann Intern Med. 1992; 117: 215220
CrossRef | PubMed

[10]Rimola, A., Gracia-Tsao, G., Navasa, M. et al. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. International Ascites Club. J Hepatol. 2000; 32: 142153

[11]Moore, K.P., Wong, F., Gins, P. et al. The management of ascites in cirrhosis: report on the consensus conference of the International Ascites Club. Hepatology. 2003; 38: 258266
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (255)

[12]Llach, J., Gins, P., Arroyo, V. et al. Prognostic value of arterial pressure, endogenous vasoactive systems and renal function in cirrhotic patients admitted to the hospital for the treatment of ascites. Gastroenterology. 1988; 94: 482487

[13]Caregaro, L., Menon, F., Angeli, P. et al. Limitations of serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance as filtration markers in cirrhosis. Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 201205
CrossRef | PubMed

[14]Heuman, D.M., Abou-assi, S.G., Habib, A. et al. Persistent ascites and low sodium identify patients with cirrhosis and low MELD score who are at high risk for early death. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 802810
CrossRef | PubMed

[15]Ring-Larsen, H., Henriksen, J.H., Wilken, C. et al. Diuretic treatment in decompensated cirrhosis and congestive heart failure: effect of posture. Br Med J. 1986; 292: 13511353
CrossRef | PubMed

[16]Gatta, A., Angeli, P., Caregaro, L., Menon, F., Sacerdoti, D., and Merkel, C. A pathophysiological interpretation of unresponsiveness to spironolactone in a stepped-care approach to the diuretic treatment of ascites in nonazotemic cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hepatology. 1991; 14: 231236
CrossRef | PubMed

[17]Bernardi, M., Laffi, G., Salvagnini, M. et al. Efficacy and safety of the stepped care medical treatment of ascites in liver cirrhosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing two diets with different sodium content. Liver. 1993; 13: 156162
CrossRef | PubMed

[18]Gauthier, A., Levy, V.G., and Quinton, A. Salt or not salt in the treatment of cirrhotic ascites: a randomized study. Gut. 1986; 27: 705709
CrossRef | PubMed

[19]Angeli, P., Gatta, A., Caregaro, L. et al. Tubular site of renal sodium retention in ascitic liver cirrhosis evaluated by lithium clearance. Eur J Clin Invest. 1990; 20: 111117
CrossRef | PubMed

[20]Angeli, P., De Bei, E., Dalla Pria, M. et al. Effects of amiloride on renal lithium handling in nonazotemic ascitic cirrhotic patients with avid sodium retention. Hepatology. 1992; 15: 651654
CrossRef | PubMed

[21]Bernardi, M., Servadei, D., Trevisani, F. et al. Importance of plasma aldosterone concentration on natriuretic effect of spironolactone in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Digestion. 1985; 31: 189193
CrossRef | PubMed

[22]Prez-Ayuso, R.M., Arroyo, V., Planas, R. et al. Randomized comparative study of efficacy of furosemide versus spironolactone in nonazotemic cirrhosis with ascites. Gastroenterology. 1984; 84: 961968

[23]Angeli, P., Dalla Pria, M., De Bei, E. et al. Randomized clinical study of the efficacy of amiloride and potassium canrenoate in nonazotemic cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hepatology. 1994; 19: 7279
CrossRef | PubMed

[24]Angeli, P., Fasolato, S., Mazza, E. et al. Combined versus sequential diuretic treatment of ascites in nonazotemic patients with cirrhosis: results of an open randomized clinical trial. Gut. 2010; 59: 98104
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (18)

[25]Santos, J., Planas, R., Pardo, A. et al. Spironolactone alone or in combination with furosemide in the treatment of moderate ascites in nonazotemic cirrhosis. A randomized comparative study of efficacy and safety. J Hepatol. 2003; 39: 187192
PubMed | Scopus (45)

[26]Bernardi, M. Optimum use of diuretics in managing ascites in patients with cirrhosis. Gut. 2010; 59: 1011
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (5)

[27]Shear, L.S., Ching, S., and Gabuzda, G.J. Compartimentalization of ascites and edema in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 1970; 282: 13911395
CrossRef | PubMed

[28]Marchesini, G., Bianchi, G.P., Amodio, P. et al. Factors associated with poor health-related quality of life of patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2001; 120: 170178

[29]Angeli, P., Albino, G., Carraro, P. et al. Cirrhosis and muscle cramps: evidence of a causal relationship. Hepatology. 1996; 23: 264273
CrossRef | PubMed

[30]Gins, P., Arroyo, V., Quintero, E. et al. Comparison of paracentesis and diuretics in the treatment of cirrhotics with tense ascites. Results of a randomized study. Gastroenterology. 1987; 92: 234241

[31]Gins, P., Tito, L.V., Arroyo, V. et al. Randomized comparative study of therapeutic paracentesis with and without intravenous albumin in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1988; 94: 14931502

[32]Salerno, F., Badalamenti, S., Incerti, P. et al. Repeated paracentesis and i.v. albumin infusion to treat tense ascites in cirrhotic patients: a safe alternative therapy. J Hepatol. 1987; 5: 102108

[33]Fassio, E., Terg, R., Landeira, G., Abecasis, R., Salemne, M., Podesta, A. et al. Paracentesis with dextran 70 vs. paracentesis with albumin in cirrhosis with tense ascites. Results of a randomized study. J Hepatol. 1992; 14: 310316

[34]Acharya, S.K., Balwinder, S., Padhee, A.K. et al. Large-volume paracentesis and intravenous dextran to treat tense ascites. J Clin Gastroentrol. 1992; 14: 3135
CrossRef | PubMed

[35]Sol, R., Vila, M.C., Andreu, M. et al. Total paracentesis with dextran 40 vs. diuretics in the treatment of ascites in cirrhosis: a randomized controlled study. J Hepatol. 1994; 20: 282288

[36]Gins, A., Fernandez-Esparrach, G., Monescillo, A. et al. Randomized controlled trial comparing albumin, dextran-70 and polygelin in cirrhotic patients with ascites treated by paracentesis. Gastroenterology. 1996; 111: 10021010

[37]Pache, I. and Bilodeau, M. Severe hemorrhage following abdominal paracentesis for ascites in patients with liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 21: 525529
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (33)

[38]Pozzi, M., Osculati, G., Boari, G. et al. Time course of circulatory and humoral effects of rapid total paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with tense, refractory ascites. Gastroenterology. 1994; 106: 709719

[39]Ruiz del Arbol, L., Monescillo, A., Jimenez, W. et al. Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction: mechanism and effect on hepatic hemodynamics in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1997; 113: 579586
PubMed | Scopus (141)

[40]Sola-Vera, J., Miana, J., Ricart, E. et al. Randomized trial comparing albumin and saline in the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 11471153
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (81)

[41]Moreau, R., Valla, D.C., Durand-Zaleski, I. et al. Comparison of outcome in patients with cirrhosis and ascites following treatment with albumin or a synthetic colloid: a randomised controlled pilot trail. Liver Int. 2006; 26: 4654
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (35)

[42]Panos, M.Z., Moore, K., Vlavianos, P., Chambers, J.B., Anderson, J.V. et al. Single, total paracentesis for tense ascites: sequential hemodynamic changes and right atrial size. Hepatology. 1990; 11: 662667
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (47)

[43]Brunkhorst, F.M., Angel, C., Bloos, F. et al. Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 125139
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1176)

[44]Christidis, C., Mal, F., Ramos, J. et al. Worsening of hepatic dysfunction as a consequence of repeated hydroxyethylstarch infusions. J Hepatol. 2001; 35: 726732
PubMed | Scopus (43)

[45]Fernndez-Esparrach, G., Guevara, M., Sort, P. et al. Diuretic requirements after therapeutic paracentesis in non-azotemic patients with cirrhosis. A randomized double-blind trial of spironolactone versus placebo. J Hepatol. 1997; 26: 614620
PubMed | Scopus (39)

[46]Lin, C.H., Shih, F.Y., Ma, M.H., Chiang, W.C., Yang, C.W., and Ko, P.C. Should bleeding tendency deter abdominal paracentesis?. Dig Liver Dis. 2005; 37: 946951
PubMed | Scopus (16)

[47]Boyer, T.D. and Reynolds, T.B. Effect of indomethacin and prostaglandin A1 on renal function and plasma renin activity in alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology. 1979; 77: 215222

[48]Clria, J., Kent, J.D., Lopez-Parra, M. et al. Effects of celecoxib and naproxen on renal function in nonaziotemic patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 579587
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (28)

[49]Pariente, E.A., Bataille, C., Bercoff, E., and Lebrec, D. Acute effects of captopril on systemic and renal hemodynamics and on renal function in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Gastroenterology. 1985; 88: 12551259

[50]Gentilini, P., Romanelli, R.G., La Villla, G. et al. Effects of low-dose captopril on renal haemodynamics and function in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Gastroenterology. 1993; 104: 588594

[51]Albillos, A., Lledo, J.L., Rossi, I. et al. Continuous prazosin administration in cirrhotic patients: effects on portal hemodynamics and on liver and renal function. Gastroenterology. 1995; 109: 12571265
PubMed | Scopus (81)

[52]Llach, J., Gins, P., Arroyo, V. et al. Effect of dipyridamole on kidney function in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1993; 17: 5964

[53]Cabrera, J., Arroyo, V., Ballesta, A.M. et al. Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity in cirrhosis. Value of urinary beta 2-microglobulin to discriminate functional renal failure from acute tubular damage. Gastroenterology. 1982; 82: 97105

[54]Haupel, H., Bynum, G.D., Zamora, E., and El-Serag, H.B. Risk factors for the development of renal dysfunction in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 22062210
CrossRef | PubMed

[55]Guevara, M., Fernndez-Esparrach, G., Alessandria, C. et al. Effects of contrast media on renal function in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective study. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 646651
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (33)

[56]Arroyo, V., Gins, P., Gerbes, A.L., Dudley, F.J. et al. Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1996; 23: 164176
CrossRef | PubMed

[57]Salerno, F., Borroni, G., Moser, P., Badalamenti, S., Cassara, L., Maggi, A. et al. Survival and prognostic factors of cirrhotic patients with ascites: a study of 134 outpatients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993; 88: 514519

[58]Guardiola, J., Baliellas, C., Xiol, X., Fernandez, E.G., Gins, P., Ventura, P. et al. External validation of a prognostic model for predicting survival of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 23742378

[59]Moreau, R., Delegue, P., Pessione, F., Hillaire, S., Durand, F., Lebrec, D. et al. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Liver Int. 2004; 24: 457464
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (43)

[60]Kamath, P.S., Wiesner, R.H., Malinchoc, M. et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2001; 33: 464470
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (1555)

[61]Durand, F. and Valla, D. Assessment of prognosis in cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2008; 28: 110122
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (57)

[62]Silberhumer, G.R., Hetz, H., Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S. et al. Is MELD score sufficient to predict not only death on waiting list, but also post-transplant survival?. Transpl Int. 2006; 19: 275281
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (33)

[63]OLeary, J.G., Lepe, R., and Davis, G.L. Indications for liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 17641766
PubMed | Scopus (45)

[64]Kim, W.R., Biggins, S.W., Krmers, W.K. et al. Hyponatremia and mortality among patients on the liver transplant waiting list. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 10181026
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (213)

[65]Luca, A., Angermayr, B., Bertolini, G. et al. An integrated MELD model including serum sodium and age improves the prediction of early mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Transpl. 2007; 13: 11741180
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (67)

[66]Moore, K.P. and Aithal, G.P. Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis. Gut. 2006; 55: vi1vi12
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (85)

[67]Boyer, T.D. and Haskal, Z.J. The role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the management of portal hypertension. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 386400
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (151)

[68]Ochs, A., Rossle, M., Haag, K., Hauenstein, K.H., Deibert, P., Siegerstetter, V. et al. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for refractory ascites. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 11921197
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (339)

[69]Wong, F., Sniderman, K., Liu, P., Allidina, Y., Sherman, M., and Blendis, L. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt: effects on hemodynamics and sodium homeostasis in cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122: 816822
CrossRef | PubMed

[70]Sanyal, A.J., Freedman, A.M., Luketic, V.A., Purdum, P.P., Shiffman, M.L., Demeo, J. et al. The natural history of portal hypertension after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 889898
PubMed | Scopus (167)

[71]Quiroga, J., Sangro, B., Nunez, M., Bilbao, I., Longo, J., Garcia-Villarreal, L. et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt in the treatment of refractory ascites: effect on clinical, renal, humoral, and hemodynamic parameters. Hepatology. 1995; 21: 986994

[72]Colombato, L.A., Spahr, L., Martinet, J.P., Dufresne, M.P., Lafortune, M., Fenyves, D. et al. Haemodynamic adaptation two months after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in cirrhotic patients. Gut. 1996; 39: 600604
CrossRef | PubMed

[73]Huonker, M., Schumacher, Y.O., Ochs, A., Sorichter, S., Keul, J., and Rssle, M. Cardiac function and haemodynamics in alcoholic cirrhosis and effects of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt. Gut. 1999; 44: 743748
CrossRef | PubMed

[74]Merli, M., Valeriano, V., Funaro, S., Attili, A.F., Masini, A., Efrati, C. et al. Modifications of cardiac function in cirrhotic patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 142148
CrossRef | PubMed

[75]Lotterer, E., Wengert, A., and Fleig, W.E. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: short-term and long-term effects on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 632639
CrossRef | PubMed

[76]Wong, F., Sniderman, K., Liu, P., and Blendis, L. The mechanism of the initial natriuresis after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 899907
PubMed | Scopus (62)

[77]Guevara, M., Gins, P., Bandi, J.C., Gilabert, R., Sort, P., Jimenez, W. et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in hepatorenal syndrome: effects on renal function and vasoactive systems. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 416422
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (216)

[78]Gerbes, A.L., Gulberg, V., Waggershauser, T., Holl, J., and Reiser, M. Renal effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhosis: comparison of patients with ascites, with refractory ascites, or without ascites. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 683688
CrossRef | PubMed

[79]Rssle, M., Ochs, A., Gulberg, V., Siegerstetter, V., Holl, J., Deibert, P. et al. A comparison of paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting in patients with ascites. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 17011707
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (292)

[80]Glberg, V., Liss, I., Bilzer, M., Waggershauser, T., Reiser, M., and Gerbes, A.L. Improved quality of life in patients with refractory or recidivant ascites after insertion of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Digestion. 2002; 66: 127130
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (23)

[81]Plauth, M., Schutz, T., Buckendahl, D.P. et al. Weight gain after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is associated with improvement in body composition in malnourished patients with cirrhosis and hypermetabolism. J Hepatol. 2004; 40: 228233
PubMed | Scopus (36)

[82]Campbell, M.S., Brensinger, C.M., Sanyal, A.J. et al. Quality of life in refractory ascites: transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunting versus medical therapy. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 635640
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (23)

[83]Gur, C., Ilan, Y., and Shibolet, O. Hepatic hydrothorax: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment review of the literature. Liver Int. 2004; 24: 281284
CrossRef | PubMed

[84]Gordon, F.D., Anastopoulos, H.T., Crenshaw, W. et al. The successful treatment of symptomatic, refractory hepatic hydrothorax with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Hepatology. 1997; 25: 13661369
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (126)

[85]Siegerstetter, V., Deibert, P., Ochs, A., Olschewski, M., Blum, H.E., and Rossle, M. Treatment of refractory hepatic hydrothorax with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: long-term results in 40 patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001; 13: 529534
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (81)

[86]Wilputte, J.Y., Goffette, P., Zech, F., Godoy-Gepert, A., and Geubel, A. The outcome after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for hepatic hydrothorax is closely related to liver dysfunction: a long-term study in 28 patients. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2007; 70: 610

[87]Riggio, O., Angeloni, S., Salvatori, F.M., De Santis, A., Cerini, F., Farcomeni, A. et al. Incidence, natural history, and risk factors of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent grafts. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 27382746
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (41)

[88]Casado, M., Bosch, J., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Bru, C., Baares, R., Bandi, J.C. et al. Clinical events after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: correlation with hemodynamic findings. Gastroenterology. 1998; 114: 12961303
PubMed | Scopus (182)

[89]Lebrec, D., Giuily, N., Hadengue, A. et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: comparison with paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites: a randomized trial. J Hepatol. 1996; 25: 135144
PubMed | Scopus (242)

[90]Gins, P., Uriz, J., Calahorra, B., Garcia-Tsao, G., and AL, E.T. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting versus paracentesis plus albumin for refractory ascites in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 18391847
PubMed | Scopus (226)

[91]Sanyal, A.J., Genning, C., Reddy, K.R. et al. The North American study for the treatment of refractory ascites. Gastroenterology. 2003; 124: 634641
PubMed | Scopus (186)

[92]Salerno, F., Merli, M., Riggio, O. et al. Randomized controlled study of TIPS versus paracentesis plus albumin in cirrhosis with severe ascites. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 629635
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (132)

[93]Albillos, A., Baares, R., Gonzalez, M., Catalina, M.V., and Molinero, L.M. A meta-analysis of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus paracentesis for refractory ascites. J Hepatol. 2005; 43: 990996
PubMed | Scopus (57)

[94]Deltenre, P., Mathurin, P., Dharancy, S., Moreau, R., Bulois, P., Henrion, J. et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in refractory ascites: a meta-analysis. Liver Int. 2005; 25: 349356
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[95]DAmico, G., Luca, A., Morabito, A., Miraglia, R., and DAmico, M. Uncovered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for refractory ascites: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2005; 129: 12821293
PubMed | Scopus (76)

[96]Saab, S., Nieto, J.M., Lewis, S.K., and Runyon, B.A. TIPS versus paracentesis for cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; : CD004889

[97]Salerno, F., Camma, C., Enea, M., Rossle, M., and Wong, F. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for refractory ascites: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133: 825834
PubMed | Scopus (108)

[98]Singh, V., Dheerendra, P.C., Singh, B. et al. Midodrine versus albumin in the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotics: a randomized pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 13991405
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (32)

[99]Angeli, P., Volpin, R., Piovan, D. et al. Acute effects of the oral administration of midodrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, on renal hemodynamics and renal function in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 937943
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (73)

[100]Krag, A., Mller, S., Henriksen, J.H., Holstein-Rathlou, N.H., Larsen, F.S., and Bendtsen, F. Terlipressin improves renal function in patients with cirrhosis and ascites without hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 18631871
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (48)

[101]Gins, P., Wong, F., Watson, M., Ruiz-Del-Arbol, L., Bilic, A., and Dobru, D. Effects of satavaptan, a selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, on ascites and serum sodium in cirrhosis with hyponatremia. Hepatology. 2008; 48: 204213
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (82)

[102]Gins, P., Wong, F., Watson, H., Terg, R., Bruha, R., Zarski, P. et al. Clinical trial: short term effects of combination of satavaptan, a selective vasopressin V receptor antagonist, and diuretics on ascites in patients with cirrhosis without hyponatremia a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 31: 834845

[103]Wong, F., Gins, P., Watson, H., Horsmans, Y., Angeli, P., Gow, P. et al. Effects of a selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, satavaptan, on ascites recurrence after paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 283290
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (31)

[104]Wong, F., Bernardi, M., Horsmans, Y., Cabrijan, Z., Watson, H., and Gins, P. Effects of satavaptan, an oral vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, on management of ascites and morbidity in liver cirrhosis in a long-term, placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol. 2009; 50: S42S43

[105]Caly, W.R. and Strauss, E. A prospective study of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 1993; 18: 353358

[106]Fernndez, J., Navasa, M., Gmez, J., Colmenero, J., Vila, J., Arroyo, V. et al. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: epidemiological changes with invasive procedures and norfloxacin prophylaxis. Hepatology. 2002; 35: 140148
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (331)

[107]Wong, F., Bernardi, M., Balk, R., Christman, B., Moreau, R., Garcia-Tsao, G. et al. Sepsis in cirrhosis: report on the 7th meeting of the International Ascites Club. Gut. 2005; 54: 718725
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (133)

[108]Garcia-Tsao, G. Current management of the complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 2001; 120: 726748

[109]Nousbaum, J.B., Cadranel, J.F., Nahon, P., Nguyen Khac, E., Moreau, R., Thvenot, T. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the Multistix 8 SG reagent strip in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 12751281
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (47)

[110]Evans, L.T., Kim, W.R., Poterucha, J.J., and Kamath, P.S. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in asymptomatic outpatients with cirrhotic ascites. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 897901
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (90)

[111]Plessier, A., Denninger, M.A., Consigny, Y., Pessione, F., Francoz, C., Durand, F. et al. Coagulation disorders in patients with cirrhosis and severe sepsis. Liver Int. 2003; 23: 440448
CrossRef | PubMed

[112]Guarner, C. and Soriano, G. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Semin Liver Dis. 1997; 17: 203217
CrossRef | PubMed

[113]Angeloni, S., Nicolini, G., Merli, M., Nicolao, F., Pinto, G., Aronne, T. et al. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 18441848
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (42)

[114]Nguyen Khac, E., Cadranel, J.F., Thvenot, T., and Nousbaum, J.B. Review article: utility of reagent strips in diagnosis of infected ascites in cirrhotic patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 28: 282288
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (23)

[115]Runyon, B.A. and Hoefs, J.C. Culture-negative neutrocytic ascites: a variant of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 1984; 4: 12091211
CrossRef | PubMed

[116]Terg, R., Levi, D., Lopez, P., Rafaelli, C., Rojter, S., Abecasis, R. et al. Analysis of clinical course and prognosis of culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and neutrocytic ascites. Evidence of the same disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1992; 37: 14991504
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (36)

[117]Xiol, X., Castellv, J.M., Guardiola, J., Ses, E., Castellote, J., Perell, A. et al. Spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhotic patients: a prospective study. Hepatology. 1996; 23: 719723
CrossRef | PubMed

[118]Felisart, J., Rimola, A., Arroyo, V., Prez-Ayuso, R.M., Quintero, E., Gins, P. et al. Cefotaxime is more effective than is ampicillintobramycin in cirrhotics with severe infections. Hepatology. 1985; 5: 457462
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (137)

[119]Rimola, A., Salmern, J.M., Clemente, G., Rodrigo, L., Obrador, A., Miranda, M.L. et al. Two different dosages of cefotaxime in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: results of a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Hepatology. 1995; 21: 674679
CrossRef | PubMed

[120]Navasa, M., Follo, A., Llovet, J.M., Clemente, G., Vargas, V., Rimola, A. et al. Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 1996; 111: 10111017

[121]Sort, P., Navasa, M., Arroyo, V., Aldeguer, X., Planas, R., Ruiz del Arbol, L. et al. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 403409
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (662)

[122]Ricart, E., Soriano, G., Novella, M.T., Ortiz, J., Sbat, M., Kolle, L. et al. Amoxicillinclavulanic acid versus cefotaxime in the therapy of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. J Hepatol. 2000; 32: 596602
PubMed | Scopus (89)

[123]Runyon, B.A., McHutchison, J.G., Antillon, M.R., Akriviadis, E.A., and Montano, A.A. Short-course versus long-course antibiotic treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A randomized controlled study of 100 patients. Gastroenterology. 1991; 100: 17371742

[124]Terg, R., Cobas, S., Fassio, E., Landeira, G., Ros, B., Vasen, W. et al. Oral ciprofloxacin after a short course of intravenous ciprofloxacin in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: results of a multicenter, randomized study. J Hepatol. 2000; 33: 564569

[125]Angeli, P., Guarda, S., Fasolato, S., Miola, E., Craighero, R., Piccolo, F. et al. Switch therapy with ciprofloxacin vs. intravenous ceftazidime in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis: similar efficacy at lower cost. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 23: 7584
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (39)

[126]Follo, A., Llovet, J.M., Navasa, M., Planas, R., Forns, X., Francitorra, A. et al. Renal impairment after spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: incidence, clinical course, predictive factors and prognosis. Hepatology. 1994; 20: 14951501
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (270)

[127]Fasolato, S., Angeli, P., Dallagnese, L., Maresio, G., Zola, E., Mazza, E. et al. Renal failure and bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis: epidemiology and clinical features. Hepatology. 2007; 45: 223229
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (78)

[128]Navasa, M., Follo, A., Filella, X., Jimnez, W., Francitorra, A., Planas, R. et al. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: relationship with the development of renal impairment and mortality. Hepatology. 1998; 27: 12271232
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (206)

[129]Sigal, S.H., Stanca, C.M., Fernandez, J., Arroyo, V., and Navasa, M. Restricted use of albumin for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gut. 2007; 56: 597599
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (38)

[130]Terg, R., Gadano, A., Cartier, M., Casciato, P., Lucero, R., Muoz, A. et al. Serum creatinine and bilirubin predict renal failure and mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a retrospective study. Liver Int. 2009; 29: 415419
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (38)

[131]Fernndez, J., Monteagudo, J., Bargallo, X., Jimnez, W., Bosch, J., Arroyo, V. et al. A randomized unblinded pilot study comparing albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 627634
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (96)

[132]Rimola, A., Bory, F., Teres, J., Prez-Ayuso, R.M., Arroyo, V., and Rods, J. Oral, nonabsorbable antibiotics prevent infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology. 1985; 5: 463467
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (137)

[133]Bleichner, G., Boulanger, R., Squara, P., Sollet, J.P., and Parent, A. Frequency of infections in cirrhotic patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Br J Surg. 1986; 73: 724726
CrossRef | PubMed

[134]Soriano, G., Guarner, C., Tomas, A., Villanueva, C., Torras, X., Gonzlez, D. et al. Norfloxacin prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology. 1992; 103: 12671272

[135]Blaise, M., Pateron, D., Trinchet, J.C., Levacher, S., Beaugrand, M., and Porriat, J.L. Systemic antibiotic therapy prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology. 1994; 20: 3438
CrossRef | PubMed

[136]Bernard, B., Cadranel, J.F., Valla, D., Escolano, S., Jarlier, V., and Opolon, P. Prognostic significance of bacterial infection in bleeding cirrhotic patients: a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1995; 108: 18281834
PubMed | Scopus (170)

[137]Pauwels, A., Mostefa-Kara, N., Debenes, B., Degoutte, E., and Levy, V.G. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection. Hepatology. 1996; 24: 802806

[138]Deschenes, M. and Villeneuve, J.P. Risk factors for the development of bacterial infections in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 21932197
CrossRef | PubMed

[139]Bernard, B., Grange, J.D., Khac, E.N., Amiot, X., Opolon, P., and Poynard, T. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 16551661
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (398)

[140]Hsieh, W.J., Lin, H.C., Hwang, S.J., Hou, M.C., Lee, F.Y., Chang, F.Y. et al. The effect of ciprofloxacin in the prevention of bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998; 93: 962966
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (89)

[141]Hou, M.C., Lin, H.C., Liu, T.T., Kuo, B.I., Lee, F.Y., Chang, F.Y. et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis after endoscopic therapy prevents rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage: a randomized trial. Hepatology. 2004; 39: 746753
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (173)

[142]Goulis, J., Armonis, A., Patch, D., Sabin, C., Greenslade, L., and Burroughs, A.K. Bacterial infection is independently associated with failure to control bleeding in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology. 1998; 27: 12071212
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (218)

[143]Vivas, S., Rodrguez, M., Palacio, M.A., Linares, A., Alonso, J.L., and Rodrigo, L. Presence of bacterial infection in bleeding cirrhotic patients is independently associated with early mortality and failure to control bleeding. Dig Dis Sci. 2001; 46: 27522757
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (56)

[144]Soares-Weiser, K., Brezis, M., Tur-Kaspa, R., and Leibovici, L. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; : CD002907

[145]Carbonell, N., Pauwels, A., Serfaty, L., Fourdan, O., Lvy, V.G., and Poupon, R. Improved survival after variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis over the past two decades. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 652659
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (279)

[146]Dupeyron, C., Mangeney, N., Sedrati, L., Campillo, B., Fouet, P., and Leluan, G. Rapid emergence of quinolone resistance in cirrhotic patients treated with norfloxacin to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38: 340344
CrossRef | PubMed

[147]Aparicio, J.R., Such, J., Pascual, S., Arroyo, A., Plazas, J., Girona, E. et al. Development of quinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli in stools of patients with cirrhosis undergoing norfloxacin prophylaxis: clinical consequences. J Hepatol. 1999; 31: 277283
PubMed | Scopus (48)

[148]Fernndez, J., Ruiz del Arbol, L., Gmez, C., Durandez, R., Serradilla, R., Guarner, C. et al. Norfloxacin vs ceftriaxone in the prophylaxis of infections in patients with advanced cirrhosis and hemorrhage. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 10491056
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (124)

[149]Runyon, B.A. Low-protein-concentration ascitic fluid is predisposed to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 1986; 91: 13431346

[150]Andreu, M., Sol, R., Sitges-Serra, A., Alia, C., Gallen, M., Vila, M.C. et al. Risk factors for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 1993; 104: 11331138

[151]Llach, J., Rimola, A., Navasa, M., Gins, P., Salmern, J.M., Gins, A. et al. Incidence and predictive factors of first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis with ascites: relevance of ascitic fluid protein concentration. Hepatology. 1992; 16: 724727
CrossRef | PubMed

[152]Guarner, C., Sol, R., Soriano, G., Andreu, M., Novella, M.T., Vila, C. et al. Risk of a first community-acquired spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics with low ascitic fluid protein levels. Gastroenterology. 1999; 117: 414419
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (100)

[153]Soriano, G., Guarner, C., Teixid, M., Such, J., Barrios, J., Enrquez, J. et al. Selective intestinal decontamination prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 1991; 100: 477481

[154]Novella, M., Sol, R., Soriano, G., Andreu, M., Gana, J., Ortiz, J. et al. Continuous versus inpatient prophylaxis of the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with norfloxacin. Hepatology. 1997; 25: 532536
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (119)

[155]Grange, J.D., Roulot, D., Pelletier, G., Pariente, E.A., Denis, J., Ink, O. et al. Norfloxacin primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with ascites: a double-blind randomized trial. J Hepatol. 1998; 29: 430436
PubMed | Scopus (83)

[156]Fernndez, J., Navasa, M., Planas, R., Montoliu, S., Monfort, D., Soriano, G. et al. Primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis delays hepatorenal syndrome and improves survival in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133: 818824
PubMed | Scopus (183)

[157]Terg, R., Fassio, E., Guevara, M., Cartier, M., Longo, C., Lucero, R. et al. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 774779
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (46)

[158]Gins, P., Rimola, A., Planas, R., Vargas, V., Marco, F., Almela, M. et al. Norfloxacin prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis recurrence in cirrhosis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology. 1990; 12: 716724
CrossRef | PubMed

[159]Bauer, T.M., Follo, A., Navasa, M., Vila, J., Planas, R., Clemente, G. et al. Daily norfloxacin is more effective than weekly rufloxacin in prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis recurrence. Dig Dis Sci. 2002; 47: 13561361
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (22)

[160]Rolachon, A., Cordier, L., Bacq, Y., Nousbaum, J.B., Franza, A., Paris, J.C. et al. Ciprofloxacin and long-term prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: results of a prospective controlled trial. Hepatology. 1995; 22: 11711174

[161]Singh, N., Gayowski, T., Yu, V.L., and Wagener, M.M. Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122: 595598
CrossRef | PubMed

[162]Campillo, B., Dupeyron, C., Richardet, J.P., Mangeney, N., and Leluan, G. Epidemiology of severe hospital acquired infections in patients with liver cirrhosis: effect of long-term administration of norfloxacin. Clin Infect Dis. 1998; 26: 10661070
CrossRef | PubMed

[163]Gins, P., Berl, T., Bernardi, M. et al. Hyponatremia in cirrhosis: from pathogenesis to treatment. Hepatology. 1998; 28: 851864
CrossRef | PubMed

[164]Arroyo, V., Clria, J., Sal, J., and Jimnez, W. Antidiuretic hormone and the pathogenesis of water retention in cirrhosis with ascites. Semin Liver Dis. 1986; 6: 353369
CrossRef | PubMed

[165]Gins P, Crdenas A, Schrier RW. Liver disease and the kidney. In: Schrier Robert W, editor. Diseases of the kidney & urinary tract. 8th ed., vol. III. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; p. 21792205.

[166]Angeli, P., Wong, F., Watson, H., and Gines, P. Hyponatremia in cirrhosis: results of a patient population survey. Hepatology. 2006; 44: 15351542
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (118)

[167]Hyponatremia treatment guidelines 2007. Expert panel recommendations. Am J Med. 2007; 120: S1S21
PubMed | Scopus (22)

[168]Arroyo, V., Rods, J., Gutirrez-Lizrraga, M.A., and Revert, L. Prognostic value of spontaneous hyponatremia in cirrhosis with ascites. Am J Dig Dis. 1976; 21: 249256
CrossRef | PubMed

[169]Cosby, R.L., Yee, B., and Schrier, R.W. New classification with prognostic value in cirrhotic patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1989; 15: 261266

[170]Porcel, A., Diaz, F., Rendn, P., Macias, M., Martn-Herrera, L., and Girn-Gonzlez, J.A. Dilutional hyponatremia in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162: 323328
CrossRef | PubMed

[171]Biggins, S., Rodriguez, H.J., Bachetti, P., Bass, N.M., Robert, J.P., and Terrault, N.A. Serum sodium predicts mortality in patients listed for liver transplantation. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 3239
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (172)

[172]Ruf, A.E., Kremers, W.K., Chavez, L.L., Descalzi, V.I., Podesta, L.G., and Villamil, F.G. Addition of serum sodium into the MELD score predicts waiting list mortality better than MELD alone. Liver Transpl. 2005; 11: 336343
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (179)

[173]Biggins, S.W., Kim, W.R., Terrault, N.A. et al. Evidence-based incorporation of serum sodium concentration into MELD. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 16521660
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (174)

[174]Londoo, M.C., Cardenas, A., Guevara, M. et al. MELD score and serum sodium in the prediction of survival of patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation. Gut. 2007; 56: 12831290
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (75)

[175]Londoo, M.C., Guevara, M., Rimola, A. et al. Hyponatremia impairs early posttransplantation outcome in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 11351143
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (82)

[176]Dawas, M.F., Lewsey, J.D., Neuberger, J. et al. The impact of serum sodium concentration on mortality after liver transplantation: a cohort multicenter study. Liver Transpl. 2007; 13: 11151124
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (41)

[177]Yun, B.C., Kim, W.R., Benson, J.T., Biggins, S.W., Therneau, T.M., Kremers, W.K. et al. Impact of pretransplant hyponatremia on outcome following liver transplantation. Hepatology. 2009; 49: 16101615
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (35)

[178]McCormick, P.A., Mistry, P., Kaye, G., Burroughs, A.K., and McIntyre, N. Intravenous albumin infusion is an effective therapy for hyponatraemia in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Gut. 1990; 31: 204207
CrossRef | PubMed

[179]Jalan, R., Mookerjee, R., Cheshire, L., Williams, R. et al. Albumin infusion for severe hyponatremia in patients with refractory ascites: a randomized clinical trail. J Hepatol. 2007; 46: 232A ([Abstract])

[180]Troyer, A., Pilloy, W., Broeckaert, I., and Demanet, J.C. Demeclocycline treatment of water retention in cirrhosis. Ann Intern Med. 1976; 85: 336337
CrossRef | PubMed

[181]Prez-Ayuso, R.M., Arroyo, V., Camps, J., Jimnez, W., Rodamilans, M., Rimola, A. et al. Effect of demeclocycline on renal function and urinary prostaglandin E2 and kallikrein in hyponatremic cirrhotics. Nephron. 1984; 36: 3037
CrossRef | PubMed

[182]Carrilho, F., Bosch, J., Arroyo, V., Mas, A., Viver, J., and Rods, J. Renal failure associated with demeclocycline in cirrhosis. Ann Intern Med. 1977; 87: 195197
CrossRef | PubMed

[183]Gadano, A., Moreau, R., Pessione, F., Trombino, C., Giuily, N., Sinnassamy, P. et al. Aquaretic effects of niravoline, a kappa-opioid agonist, in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2000; 32: 3842

[184]Quittnat, F. and Gross, P. Vaptans and the treatment of water-retaining disorders. Semin Nephrol. 2006; 26: 234243
PubMed | Scopus (12)

[185]Gins, P. The vaptans: a promising therapy in the management of advanced cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2007; 46: 11501152
PubMed | Scopus (17)

[186]Decaux, G., Soupart, A., and Vassart, G. Non-peptide argininevasopressin antagonists: the vaptans. Lancet. 2008; 371: 16241632
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (115)

[187]Schrier, R.W., Gross, P., Gheorghiade, M., Berl, T., Verbalis, J.G., Czerwiec, F.S. et al. Tolvaptan, a selective oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, for hyponatremia. N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 20992112
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (410)

[188]Afdhal, N., Cardenas, A., Gins, P. et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of tolvaptan, a novel V2-receptor antagonist, in hyponatremia: results of the SALT 2 trial with emphasis on efficacy and safety in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005; 42: LB19A ([Abstract])

[189]OLeary, J.G. and Favis, G. Conivaptan increases serum sodium in hyponatremic patients with end stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2009; 15: 13251329
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (13)

[190]Gerbes, A., Glberg, V., Gins, P...., and The VPA Study Group. Therapy of hyponatremia in cirrhosis with a vasopressin receptor antagonist: a randomized double-blind multicenter trial. Gastroenterology. 2003; 124: 933939
PubMed | Scopus (170)

[191]Wong, F., Blei, A.T., Blendis, L.M., and Thuluvath, P.J. A vasopressin receptor antagonist (VPA-985) improves serum sodium concentration in patients with hyponatremia: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology. 2003; 37: 182191
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (172)

[192]Salerno, F., Gerbes, A., Gins, P., Wong, F., and Arroyo, V. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Gut. 2007; 56: 13101318

[193]Bellomo, R., Ronco, C., Kellum, J.A. et al. Acute renal failure definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the second international consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) group. Crit Care. 2004; 8: R204R212
CrossRef | PubMed

[194]Stadlbauer, V., Wright, G.A., Banaji, M. et al. Relationship between activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renal blood flow autoregulation in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 111119
PubMed | Scopus (33)

[195]Gins, P. and Schrier, R.W. Renal failure in cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 12791290
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (128)

[196]Dagher, L. and Moore, K. The hepatorenal syndrome. Gut. 2001; 19: 729737
CrossRef | Scopus (56)

[197]Thabut, D., Massard, J., Gangloff, A., Carbonell, N., Francoz, C., Nguyen-Khac, E. et al. Model for end-stage liver disease score and systemic inflammatory response are major prognostic factors in patients with cirrhosis and acute functional renal failure. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 18721882
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (55)

[198]Terra, C., Guevara, M., Torre, A., Gilabert, R., Fernndez, J., Martn-Llah, M. et al. Renal failure in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis unrelated to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: value of MELD score. Gastroenterology. 2005; 129: 19441953
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (107)

[199]Gins, A., Escorsell, A., Gins, P., Sal, J., Jimnez, W., Inglada, L. et al. Incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of the hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis with ascites. Gastroenterology. 1993; 105: 229236

[200]Alessandria, C., Ozdogan, O., Guevara, M., Restuccia, T., Jimnez, W., Arroyo, V. et al. MELD score and clinical type predict prognosis in hepatorenal syndrome: relevance to liver transplantation. Hepatology. 2005; 41: 12821289
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (126)

[201]Kew, M.C., Varma, R.R., Sampson, D.J., and Sherlock, S. The effect of octapressin on renal and intrarenal blood flow in cirrhosis of the liver. Gut. 1972; 13: 293296
CrossRef | PubMed

[202]Lenz, K., Hrtnagl, H., Druml, W., Reither, H., Schmid, R., Schneeweiss, B. et al. Ornipressin in the treatment of functional renal failure in decompensated liver cirrhosis. Effects on renal hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic factor. Gastroenterology. 1991; 101: 10601067

[203]Guevara, M., Gins, P., Fernndez-Esparrach, G. et al. Reversibility of hepatorenal syndrome by prolonged administration of ornipressin and plasma volume expansion. Hepatology. 1998; 27: 3541
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (237)

[204]Glberg, V., Bilzer, M., and Gerbes, A.L. Long term therapy and retreatment of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 with ornipressin and dopamine. Hepatology. 1999; 30: 870875
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (152)

[205]Moreau, R., Durand, F., Poynard, T. et al. Terlipressin in patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: a retrospective multicenter study. Gastroenterology. 2002; 122: 923930
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed

[206]Fabrizi, F., Dixit, V., and Martin, P. Metaanalysis: terlipressin therapy for hepatorenal syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 24: 935944
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (51)

[207]Gluud, L.L., Kjaer, M.S., and Christensen, E. Terlipressin for hepatorenal syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; 4: CD005162

[208]Sanyal, A.J., Boyer, T., Garcia-Tsao, G. et al. A randomized prospective double blind, placebo controlled study of terlipressin for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 13601368
PubMed | Scopus (155)

[209]Martin, L., Lahi, M., Pepin, M.N., Guevara, M. et al. Terlipressin and albmina vs albmina in patients with cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome: a randomized study. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 13521359
PubMed | Scopus (133)

[210]Moreau, R. and Lebrec, D. The use of vasoconstrictors in patients with cirrhosis: type 1 HRS and beyond. Hepatology. 2006; 43: 385394
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (67)

[211]Gins, P. and Guevara, M. Therapy with vasoconstrictor drugs in cirrhosis: the time has arrived. Hepatology. 2007; 46: 16851687
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (6)

[212]Nazar, A., Pereira, G.H., Guevara, M., Martin-Llah, M., Pepin, M.N. et al. Predictors of response to therapy to terlipressin and albumin in patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 219226
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (54)

[213]Ortega, R., Gins, P., Uriz, J. et al. Terlipressin therapy with and without albmina for patients with hepatorenal syndrome: results of a prospective, nonrandomized study. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 941948

[214]Gluud, L.L., Christensen, K., Christensen, E., and Krag, A. Systematic review of randomized trials on vasoconstrictor drugs for hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology. 2010; 51: 576584
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (77)

[215]Alessandria, C., Venon, W.D., Marzano, A., Barletti, C., Fadda, M., and Rizzetto, M. Renal failure in cirrhotic patients: role of terlipressin in clinical approach to hepatorenal syndrome type 2. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002; 47: 401404

[216]Angeli, P., Volpin, R., Gerunda, G., Craighero, R., Roner, P., Merenda, R. et al. Reversal of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome with the administration of midodrine and octreotide. Hepatology. 1999; 29: 16901697
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (292)

[217]Wong, F., Pantea, L., and Sniderman, K. Midodrine, octreotide, albumin, and TIPS in selected patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology. 2004; 40: 5564
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (171)

[218]Duvoux, C., Zanditenas, D., Hzode, C., Chauvat, A., Monin, J.L., Roudot-Thoraval, F. et al. Effects of noradrenalin and albumin in patients with type I hepatorenal syndrome: a pilot study. Hepatology. 2002; 36: 374380
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (185)

[219]Akriviadis, E., Bortla, R., Briggs, W., Han, S., Reynolds, T., and Shakil, O. Pentoxifylline improves short-term survival in severe acute alcoholic hepatitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 2000; 119: 16371648

[220]Lebrec, D., Thabut, D., Oberti, F., Perarnau, J.M., Condat, B., Barraud, H. et al. Pentoxifylline does not decrease short term mortality but does reduce complications in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 17551762
PubMed | Scopus (32)

[221]Brensing, K.A., Textor, J., Perz, J., Schiedermaier, P., Raab, P., Strunk, H. et al. Long-term outcome after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic-stent shunt in non-transplant cirrhotics with hepatorena syndrome: a phase II study. Gut. 2000; 47: 288295
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (216)

[222]Keller, F., Heinze, H., Jochimson, F., Passfall, J., Schuppan, D., and Bttner, P. Risk factors and outcome of 107 patients with decompensated liver disease and acute renal failure (including 26 patients with hepatorenal syndrome): the role of hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 1995; 17: 135146
CrossRef | PubMed

[223]Capling, R.K. and Bastani, B. The clinical course of patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome maintained on hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 2004; 26: 563568
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (22)

[224]Mitzner, S.R., Stange, J., Klammt, S., Risler, T., Erley, C.M., Bader, B.D. et al. Improvement of hepatorenal syndrome with extracorporeal albumin dialysis MARS: results of a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Liver Transpl. 2000; 6: 287289
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (421)

[225]Laleman, W., Wilmer, A., Evenepoel, P., Elst, I.V., Seegers, M., Zaman, Z. et al. Crit Care. 2006; 10: R108
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (91)

[226]Gonwa, T.A., Morris, C.A., Goldstein, R.M., Husberg, B.S., and Klintmalm, G.B. Long-term survival and renal function following liver transplantation in patients with and without hepatorenal syndrome experience in 300 patients. Transplantation. 1991; 51: 428430
CrossRef | PubMed

[227]Jeyarajah, D.R., Gonwa, T.A., McBride, M. et al. Hepatorenal syndrome: combined liver kidney transplants versus isolated liver transplant. Transplantation. 1997; 64: 17601765
CrossRef | PubMed | Scopus (79)

[228]Charlton, M.R., Wall, W.J., Ojo, A.O., Gins, P., Textor, S., Shihab, F.S. et al. International liver transplantation expert panel. Report of the first international liver transplantation society expert panel consensus conference on renal insufficiency in liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2009; 15: S1S34
CrossRef | PubMed

[229]Restuccia, T., Ortega, R., Guevara, M., Gins, P., Alessandria, C., Ozdogan, O. et al. Effects of treatment of hepatorenal syndrome before transplantation on posttransplantation outcome. A casecontrol study. J Hepatol. 2004; 40: 140146
PubMed | Scopus (123)